This study examines which is the margin of usability for Artificial Intelligence (AI) algorithms related to the rock properties distribution in static modeling. This novel method shows a forward modeling approach using neural networks and genetic algorithms to optimize correlation patterns among seismic traces of stack volumes and well rock properties. Once a set of nonlinear functions is optimized in the well locations, to correlate seismic traces and rock properties, spatial response is estimated using the seismic volume. This seismic characterization process is directly dependent on the error minimization during the structural seismic interpretation process, as well as, honoring the structural complexity while modeling. Previous points are key elements to obtain an adequate correlation between well data and seismic traces. The joint mechanism of neural networks and genetic algorithms globally optimize the nonlinear functions and its parameters to minimize the cost function. Estimated objective function correlates well rock properties with seismic stack data. This mechanism is applied to real data, within a high structural complexity and several wells. As an output, calibrated petrophysical time volumes in the interval of interest are obtained. Properties are used initially to generate a geological facies model. Subsequently, facies and seismic properties are used for the three-dimensional distribution of petrophysical properties such as: rock type, porosity, clay volume and permeability. Therefore, artificial intelligence algorithms can be widely exploited for uncertainty reduction within the rock property spatial estimation.
Berg, Tor E. (Norwegian Marine Technology Research Institute (MARINTEK)) | Selvik, ørjan (Norwegian Marine Technology Research Institute (MARINTEK)) | Rautio, Rune (Akvaplan-niva) | Bambulyak, Alexei (Akvaplan-niva) | Marichev, Andrey (Norwegian University of Science and Technology)
This paper discusses the status and development prospects of Arctic escape, evacuation and rescue (EER) solutions in the Greenland and Barents Seas, and briefly describes two recent maritime rescue operations in Norwegian waters. Successful outcomes of maritime EER operations in Arctic waters depend on a number of factors, including design of escape routes, available means of evacuation, distance to available SAR resources, type of rescue units, early information/detection related to maritime accidents, and metocean and ice conditions. Selected items are discussed below.
European Arctic waters comprise the areas from Eastern Greenland to the Barents Sea. There are some major differences between preferred escape, evacuation and rescue (EER) solutions for Greenland, Iceland, Norway and Russia. This is mainly due to differences in national EER philosophies, organization and availability of search-and-rescue (SAR) resources. In Norwegian waters, the preferred EER solution is based on governmental SAR helicopters, while ships operated and coordinated by state salvage departments are the most important tools for Russian EER at sea. This difference reflects the distinctions between the Norwegian and Russian Arctic waters in terms of distances, infrastructure and conditions. Norway has approximately 20% winter ?? ice cover, while most of Russia’s Arctic waters are covered by ice in winter. Russia's SAR system in the Arctic is based on icebreakers and ice-class salvage vessels.
This paper discusses the current status of and development prospects for Arctic EER solutions for the Greenland and Barents Seas,and briefly describe how successful outcomes of maritime EER operations in Arctic waters depend on a number of factors such as the design of escape routes, available evacuation means, distance to available appropriate SAR resources, early information about and detection of maritime accidents, and metocean and ice conditions. The challenges we discuss include:
- Traffic surveillance and detection of maritime accidents
- Operability of evacuation means under Arctic conditions
- Transit speed for seaborne rescue vehicles
- Transfer of personnel from lifeboat/life rafts to helicopter or rescue vessel.
This paper introduces a potential novel concept for glacial ice management. The concept involves the capability of a platform and its riser and mooring systems to shift for a relatively large distance— hence the ‘sidestep’ term—in order to bypass the glacial ice. However, in order for the platform to be able to sidestep, the platform needs to be equipped with features which support the large distance movement.
For floating platforms like semi-submersibles, the sidestep movement may be accomplished by varying the tension rate of the mooring system to make it more slack or taut. However, a turret-moored FPSO needs to have a larger thruster capability, since the sidestep movement will be executed by the use of thrusters. This sidestep capability can be used as an additional safety measure for floaters operating in deep-water regions, which are susceptible to glacial ice. In particular for a turret-moored FPSO, this capability may be beneficial as an option prior to the turret disconnection.
For this concept, the configuration of risers and mooring system should be carefully designed to withstand the shifting conditions, as the riser and mooring system will still be attached to the platform during the sidestep process. A steel riser in a lazy wave configuration (SLWR) is proposed to fulfill this requirement.
This paper discusses the benefits and challenges of the sidestep concept. This paper also presents the analysis results of a lazy wave riser during the sidestep condition. Analysis works are carried out using the OrcaFlex simulation program.
Oil and gas activities have now reached the ‘new frontier’ areas within the Arctic Circle. This area has always been regarded as challenging due to the harsh environmental conditions, which are characterized by sub-zero temperatures, severe sea-states, intensive seasonal fog and glacial ice masses.
Glacial ice occurs in many areas of the Arctic and sub-Arctic regions, for example west and south east of Greenland, west of Baffin Island, on the Green Banks and in the Russian Arctic. Each of the field developments in the area above has its own specific ice management strategies. However, the strategies generally have two objectives: to ensure the safety of the assets (people, installations and environment) and to maximize operational efficiency.
This study aims at reducing uncertainty in the prediction of petrophysical properties (porosity, water saturation and net to gross) of a field at locations that do not have well data by employing geostatistical simulations, artificial neural network and object facies modeling techniques in modeling the petrophysical property variations across a field. The project has an objective of establishing standard workflows that can be adopted in modeling petrophysical property variation in a field. Four classes of model were developed which are: the pure artificial neural network model, the pure variogram model, the collocated cokriging model and the bivariate cross plot model. The Gullfaks 3D seismic data, Checkshot data and Well log was used in implementing the project using the Petrel 2013 Software. Stratigraphic modeling, seismic interpretation, Depth conversion and 3D Grid Construction were done to provide an appropriate 3D Grid Structure for Petrophysical modeling.
This article, written by JPT Technology Editor Chris Carpenter, contains highlights of paper SPE 166879, “Selection of Subsea-Production Systems for Field Development in the Arctic Environment,” by E.A. Pribytkov, Gubkin Russian State University and the University of Stavanger; A.B. Zolotukhin, Gubkin Russian State University; and O.T. Gudmestad, University of Stavanger, prepared for the 2013 SPE Arctic and Extreme Environments Conference and Exhibition, Moscow, 15–17 October. The paper has not been peer reviewed.
In this paper, an analysis of the selection of integrated template structures (ITSs) for Arctic environments is presented. An analysis of several actual projects has been carried out. One of the important parts of this work was devoted to the requirements on ITSs conceived in relevant standards. The main elements of subsea-production modules, including their specific characteristics and components, are considered in the work.
The Terra Nova and White Rose fields, on the Grand Banks of Newfoundland, have been developed; other offshore projects are being prepared, such as Goliat and Skrugard in Northern Norway. These projects can be considered as true stepping stones toward oil and gas development in the Arctic region. The harsh conditions of the Arctic environment (low temperatures, icing, snow, fog, and polar night) lead to weather limitations, required winterization, complex logistics, and difficult emergency evacuation and rescue organization.
The severe climatic conditions make the development of Arctic offshore and subsea marine operations extremely challenging. Features affecting safe offshore operations, subsea construction work, and field development are many, and are outlined in the complete paper. Several such factors of great importance are winds, waves, currents, and polar lows (low-pressure weather phenomena that appear when there are changes of cold Arctic air over the sea). Operational criteria are based on several weather parameters.
A large number of gas fields have recently been discovered offshore in depths of up to 3000 m, far away from the nearest coast and in countries with little or no oil and gas infrastructure. In addition to the field development strategies including large surface facilities for processing and export to shore, or floating LNG plants, the industry may in the future be seeing more subsea-to-shore developments for these fields. Total and Aker Solutions have completed a study for a challenging notional gas field development located at 2500m water depth, 300 km from shore, that is to be developed using only subsea technology. The vision is a fully autonomous subsea production system with tieback to shore. This paper describes the flow assurance challenges with long-distance subsea tiebacks to shore, from deep offshore fields, and the work done to identify the wide range of subsea processing schemes that may improve the gas transport. Two of these schemes were selected and studied in detail: one consisting of pushing the envelope of multiphase transport to shore with the aid of a subsea compression system, and the other of developing a system for subsea gas dehydration to avoid the use of Mono Ethylene Glycol (MEG) for hydrate inhibition. The main challenges of using these technologies are presented and discussed.
Yakymchuk, N.A. (Institute of Applied Problems of Ecology, Geophysics and Geochemistry) | Levashov, S.P. (Institute of Geophysics of Ukraine National Academy of Science) | Korchagin, I.N. (Institute of Geophysics of Ukraine National Academy of Science) | Bozhezha, D.N. (Management and Marketing Center of Institute of Geological Science NAS Ukraine)
The results of application the technology of frequency-resonance processing and interpretation of remote sensing (RS) data for the hydrocarbons (HC) accumulation searching and prospecting in different region of Barents Sea are analyzed in the paper. This mobile method works within the framework of the "substantial" paradigm of geological and geophysical studies, the essence of which is "direct" searching for a particular substance such as oil, gas, gold, silver, platinum, zinc, iron, water, etc. Technology allow to detect and map operatively the anomalous zones of the "oil accumulation" and (or) "gas accumulation" type. The bedding depths of the anomalous polarized layers (APL) of gas, oil and gas-condensate type may be determined by vertical scanning of RS data within detected anomalous areas. Mobile technology allows to get a new (additional) and, more importantly, independent information about petroleum potential of the surveyed areas. This information in integration with available geological and geophysical materials can be used to select the objects for detailed studying and primary drilling. Mapped large anomalous zone of the "gas reservoir" and "gas-condensate reservoir" type on the unique Shtokman field allows to conclude, that giant and unique HC deposits in the Arctic region can be detected and mapped by used mobile method. The absence of anomalous zone over Central structure on the Fedynsky High and the relatively small anomalous zone over Pakhtusovskaya structure indicate that the probability of finding giant fields within these structures is very low. Consequently, the detailed geological-geophysical studies and drilling within these structures at this stage of prospecting are impractical due to the fact that at such a distance from the coast now is economically feasible to develop only the giant and unique HC deposits. Seven anomalous zones of the "gas+condensate" type were mapped also within area of the large Varnekskoye uplift. Seven anomalies of "oil and gas deposits" type have been discovered and mapped on the Norwegian shelf in the area of Skrugard and Havis fields' location with mobile method using. In the Norwegian part of the former "gray" zone of the Barents Sea the remote sensing data were processed within four search sites covering 39742 km2. Area of 3D seismic work within them is 13956 km2. Two anomalous zones of the "gas deposit" type and 13 anomalous zones of "gas+condensate reservoir" type with total area of 1613 km2 were detected and mapped within investigated areas.
The received results show the principal possibility of remote sensing, seismic and geoelectric methods integrated application for hydrocarbon accumulations prospecting and exploration within offshore. The mobile technology of frequency-resonance processing of RS data provides a unique opportunity to operatively investigate in reconnaissance character within the Arctic region the most promising areas for the detection of giant and unique HC fields. This may significantly speed up the development of the oil and gas potential of Arctic region.
Although podded propulsor technology has existed for nearly two decades, there has been little research into the use of these propulsors for ice management. Full-scale ice management trials with azimuthing thrusters revealed that it was possible to break and clear ice with the propulsors' wake and that precise ice management could be achieved with the wake of this propulsion system. This means dynamic placement ofpropeller wake wash can facilitate ice breaking and ice management operations. This paper presents preliminary outcome of a research program to evaluate the potentials ofpodded propulsors as an ice management device.
The kinematics i.e. the turbulence and velocity distribution in the propeller wake wash determines the capacity of the propulsor to break, push and clear the ice. In this research, efforts are made to model the propeller wash and data were predicted to quantify the capacity of a podded propulsor to clear ice under a range of operating conditions. A Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes solver is used to predict the propulsive performance of a generic podded propulsor system in various operating conditions and configurations. The effects ofpropeller shaft speed and pod configuration are evaluated. The predicted propeller thrust and torque as well as the loads on the pod are compared with corresponding data acquired in a complimentary experimental program. The simulations and measurements are carried out for both puller and pusher configurations at or near bollard pull condition and in uniform inflow condition. Analysis demonstrates that the RANS solver can accurately predict the performance coefficients of the podded propulsor in straight-ahead condition in both puller and pusher configurations. The kinematics of the propeller wash at multiple downstream locations are studied only to reveal that the pusher propulsor may be more effective in clearing ice than the puller one because of less interaction between the propeller and the strut. The current work aims to provide insight into the effect of propeller shaft speed and pod configurations on the quality of the propeller wake that can be used for ice management.
SAMCoT is a centre for research-based innovation with long-term funding by the Research Council of Norway and the Energy Industry. In total 22 partners from half a dozen sectors are member of the centre which is a leading national and international centre for the development of robust technology needed by the Industry for sustainable exploration and exploitation of the Arctic region. SAMCoT, Sustainable Arctic Marine and Coastal Technology, started in 2011 and is tasked to meet the engineering challenges due to ice, permafrost and changing climate for the benefit of the energy sector and society. The Arctic research is split into 6 work packages (Data Collection and Process Modelling, Material Modelling, Fixed Structures in Ice, Floating Structures in Ice, Ice Management and Design Philosophy, and Coastal Technology). This paper will specifically focus on how the Arctic Centre of Excellence is preparing and contributing to the sustainable industry development in the Arctic region.
Pribytkov, Evgeny A. (Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas and University of Stavanger) | Zolotukhin, Anatoly B. (Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas and University of Stavanger) | Gudmestad, Ove T. (University of Stavanger)
This paper analyzes the various selection methods of integrated template structures (ITSs) for use in the Arctic environment. First, an analysis of several actual projects is carried out, with the specific features of each described thoroughly. An important part of the work is devoted to the requirements of ITSs conceived in relevant NORSOK (Norsk Sokkels Konkuranseposisjon), International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and DNV (Det Norske Veritas) standards. The main elements of subsea production modules are examined in this work, along with their specific characteristics and components. Operation and installation of subsea modules in the Barents Sea are also analyzed in this paper. Four scenarios, with differing numbers of ITSs (two, three, four, and six) and differing quantities of well slots in each, are considered. For each scenario, a study of related marine operations (required for installation) is performed, and a program for installation-cost estimates is developed, resulting in the determination of an optimal design for the ITSs. Various parameters affecting the cost of subsea infrastructure are analyzed and studied from different perspectives (e.g., geometrical well-pattern systems, distance between drilling slots, drilling and construction costs). Risk analyses of the threats and consequences involved in the process are performed, and risk-assessment matrices and mitigation actions are established. As a result, a model for selecting an optimal ITS for the Arctic/Sub-Arctic region is created.