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Remote well monitoring is the ability to provide data obtained in or near the wellbore without requiring access and entry for intervention to the well. Downhole permanent monitoring has been a widely accepted technology since the early 1990s. There are advantages and disadvantages to all monitoring systems; however, improvements in reliability and the realization of the added value of information have made this technology commonplace in offshore and some land applications. Remote monitoring can be coupled with remote flow control applications in intelligent wells, or it can be run as a standalone system. Sensor systems may be electronic or optical based.
Equinor struck oil in Production License 554 with a pair of wells at its Garantiana West prospect. Exploration wells 34/6‑5 S and 34/6-5 ST2 were drilled some 10 km north-east of the Visund field, with the former encountering a total oil column of 86 m in the Cook formation. The latter well encountered sandstones in the Nansen formation, but did not encounter commercial hydrocarbons. Recoverable resources are estimated at between 8 and 23 million BOE. "This is the first Equinor-operated well in the production license, and the fifth discovery on the Norwegian continental shelf this year," said Rune Nedregaard, senior vice president, exploration and production south. "The discovery is in line with our roadmap of exploring near existing infrastructure in order to increase the commerciality."
The 2021 SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition (ATCE) will take place next month in Dubai from 21–23 September. Hosted by Dragon Oil, the conference offers a technical agenda that reflects the changing oil and gas industry and its effects on the full spectrum of disciplines. The industry's leadership role in adapting to the world's shifting markets and priorities will be highlighted throughout the event with top-level speakers and panelists. The technical sessions will focus on presentations of papers selected by the program committee to guide attendees in understanding and applying innovative and cost-effective technologies in all aspects of the industry throughout the life cycle of an asset. The power of data analytics has evolved throughout all disciplines and has led to a deeper understanding of drilling, completions, production and operations, and reservoirs.
The Merriam-Webster Dictionary defines simulate as assuming the appearance of without the reality. Simulation of petroleum reservoir performance refers to the construction and operation of a model whose behavior assumes the appearance of actual reservoir behavior. The model itself is either physical (for example, a laboratory sandpack) or mathematical. A mathematical model is a set of equations that, subject to certain assumptions, describes the physical processes active in the reservoir. Although the model itself obviously lacks the reality of the reservoir, the behavior of a valid model simulates--assumes the appearance of--the actual reservoir. The purpose of simulation is estimation of field performance (e.g., oil recovery) under one or more producing schemes. Whereas the field can be produced only once, at considerable expense, a model can be produced or run many times at low expense over a short period of time. Observation of model results that represent different producing ...
Reservoir simulation is a widely used tool for making decisions on the development of new fields, the location of infill wells, and the implementation of enhanced recovery projects. It is the focal point of an integrated effort of geosciences, petrophysics, reservoir, production and facilities engineering, computer science, and economics. Geoscientists using seismic, well-log, outcrop analog data and mathematical models are able to develop geological models containing millions of cells. These models characterize complex geological features including faults, pinchouts, shales, and channels. Simulation of the reservoir at the fine geologic scale, however, is usually not undertaken except in limited cases.
In many operations worldwide, surface waters are injected into producing formations to enhance oil recovery. The types of surface waters used range from seawater (salt water) to lake water (brackish) to river water (fresh water). Surface water must be treated to remove undesirable components before injection. Treatment of surface water for injection requires a specially designed system made up of various components to remove or control any contaminants in the water. The system is engineered to perform the required treatment in the most cost-effective and environmentally sensitive manner. A typical system is shown in Figure 1. Commonly used methods for removal or control of these contaminants are discussed in this section. Surface waters normally contain suspended solids particles that, if injected into the producing formation, will plug the injection well. The type, concentration, and particle-size distribution of suspended solids in water will vary depending on the source of the surface water.
This page provides a reservoir management case study for an offshore sandstone field under solution-gas drive in which water and gas injection techniques have been implemented. The highly faulted structure produces from six different productive horizons. The depositional settings range from deepwater marine turbidite fans through near shore and delta san facies to fluvial deposits. The reservoir has been developed from two separate platforms and has an extensive subsea development of satellite fields. More than 140 wells have been drilled from two platforms since initial development in 1976 with well lengths varying from 9,800 to 19,000 ft.
This chapter concerns the use of water injection to increase the production from oil reservoirs, and the technologies that have been developed over the past 50 years to evaluate, design, operate, and monitor such projects. Use of water to increase oil production is known as "secondary recovery" and typically follows "primary production," which uses the reservoir's natural energy (fluid and rock expansion, solution-gas drive, gravity drainage, and aquifer influx) to produce oil. The principal reason for waterflooding an oil reservoir is to increase the oil-production rate and, ultimately, the oil recovery. This is accomplished by "voidage replacement"--injection of water to increase the reservoir pressure to its initial level and maintain it near that pressure. The water displaces oil from the pore spaces, but the efficiency of such displacement depends on many factors (e.g., oil viscosity and rock characteristics).
The design of a waterflood has many phases. First, simple engineering evaluation techniques are used to determine whether the reservoir meets the minimum technical and economic criteria for a successful waterflood. If so, then more-detailed technical calculations are made. These include the full range of engineering and geoscience studies. The geologists must develop as complete an understanding as possible of the internal character of the pay intervals and of the continuity of nonpay intervals.
Nearly 150 workers have been evacuated or are due for evacuation from Shell's Shearwater project in the North Sea since a COVID-19 outbreak emerged at the end of June, the company said on 20 July, as the industry called for an exemption from self-isolation rules for offshore workers. So far, 26 people at the Shearwater oil and gas hub have tested positive for COVID-19, with another 122 categorized as having been "close contacts" of those infected, Shell told S&P Global Platts. Most have already been flown to shore, with a small number isolating at the facility before returning to shore, Shell said, adding that the spread of infection was slowing, with only five cases detected in the last 7 days of the outbreak. Shearwater is the focus of concerns that rising UK infection rates could spread to the offshore oil and gas sector, which normally provides 1 million B/D of oil including the Brent and Forties benchmark grades and meets about half the country's gas needs. Offshore workforce numbers have recently recovered to well over 10,000, following a steep fall last year in response the pandemic, according to industry figures.