Moreno Ortiz, Jaime Eduardo (Schlumberger) | Gossuin, Jean (Schlumberger) | Liu, Yunlong (Schlumberger) | Klemin, Denis (Schlumberger) | Gurpinar, Omer (Schlumberger) | Gheneim Herrera, Thaer (Schlumberger)
Challenges on EOR process upscaling have been discussed extensively in the industry and effects of diffusion, dispersion, heterogeneity, force balance and frontal velocity -among others, recognized and qualified, along with the importance of understanding the numerical model finite difference equations and modeling strategy. Augmenting the upscaling complexity is the often-limited understanding/data on the EOR displacement at different scales (from micro to full field), including the EOR agent/rock/fluid interactions that is often available at the early stages of the EOR process de-risking.
A common denominator for the EOR process characterization and upscaling (along with the discretization of the displacement) is the non-uniqueness nature of the problem. As the complexity of numerical representation of the EOR process increases (thus increasing data characterization requirements), so does the number of plausible solutions and challenges when dealing with an otherwise incomplete dataset. Digital rock has evolved as a strong alternative to complement laboratory corefloods, allowing for EOR agent optimization on a high-resolution digital representation of the pore structure, detailed digital fluid model of both reservoir fluids and EOR agents and physical rock-EOR agent-reservoir fluid interaction, thus providing several calibration points to ensure the finite-difference model calibration and upscaling preserve the process behavior.
This paper discusses the use of digital rock solutions on the EOR deployment, particularly on translating the results to numerical finite difference models, addressing the inherent laboratory measurement uncertainty and proposing a fit-for-purpose multi-scale upscaling strategy that addresses both effects of heterogeneity and EOR agent characterization during the upscale process.
This paper addresses the challenges of chemical flooding upscaling, particularly polymer by using a real-life polymer injection case where digital rock, corefloods and more importantly pilot results are available to test and validate our observations. Using a polymer coreflood and digital rock results as input, numerical finite difference simulation models were built and calibrated to effectively reproduce the displacement physics observed on both digital rock and corefloods, digital flood results were used to bridge the laboratory-to-numerical model step by providing effective upscaled polymer properties as well as intrinsic rock properties such as relative permeability and capillary pressures, which are then taken through a series of multi-scale finite difference models to identify, validate and quantify upscaling requirements, addressing polymer deformation through pore throats and effective simulation viscosity. Digital rock is used to rank and resolve ambiguity on the finite difference model calibration by providing an otherwise rare opportunity to visualize the displacement in the 3D space. The analysis shed a new light on fluid-fluid and fluid-rock interaction at pore scale and enabled us to improve on the finite difference model generation and polymer properties.
Dooply, Mohammed (Schlumberger) | Schupbach, Michael (Murphy Exploration & Production Co.) | Hampshire, Kenneth (Murphy Exploration & Production Co.) | Contreras, Jose (Schlumberger) | Flamant, Nicolas (Schlumberger)
Two of the most important parameters to monitor during a primary cementing job are the pumped-in and return flow rate measurements. To achieve optimum quality control of a primary cementing job, measuring annular return rates and comparing them with simulated data in real-time will provide better understanding of job signatures and result in the best possible top-of-cement estimation prior to running any cement evaluation log or taking decision to continue drilling the next section of the well. The return rate job signature along with the wellhead pressure is essential to understand the behavior and discrepancies between simulated and acquired surface data. Therefore, to assess the risk of job issues, such as unsuspected washout and lost circulation among others, accurate measurements of the return rate are critical. Historically, cement job evaluation has been limited by the fact that most drilling rigs do not have an accurate flow meter installed on the annulus return line, and a simple verification of mud tanks volumes versus pumped volume, as reported by drillers or mud loggers, more than often resulted in an unreliable assessment of the volume lost downhole, due to the unfamiliarity with the U-tubing effect and lack of data consolidation from the cement unit (flow rate in) and the rig (flow rate in & flow rate out). This paper will review a solution developed to mitigate the lack of a direct flow rate measurement by computing and displaying the return rate using either a paddle meter measurement or the derivative over time of the volume observed in the rig tanks.
In the petroleum industry, references to a new science called Operations Research appeared in the literature in the late 1950s; however, over the last 60 years, use of Operations Research optimization techniques in the petroleum industry has been sporadic, resulting in vast untapped optimization opportunities. Some subsets of the petroleum industry have successfully used Operations Research optimization techniques for specific applications; however, when these techniques were not used by the industry, the stated reasons involved difficulty dealing with non-linearities and stochastic elements, insufficient computational power to solve realistic models, and the necessity for specialized knowledge of Operations Research optimization software and solvers. In this paper we provide a history of the use of Operations Research optimization methods in the petroleum industry by presenting a comprehensive review of papers that use these techniques. We focus on linear, nonlinear, integer, and mixed-integer optimization methods and the evolution of these models in the petroleum industry over time.
Purewal, Satinder (Imperial College) | Pacheco-Roman, Francisco J. (Secretaria de Energia SENER) | Hernández Juárez, Mayelli (Secretaria de Energia SENER) | León Mella, José A. (Agencia de Seguridad Energia y Ambiente) | Mera Avecias, Guillermina (Agencia de Seguridad Energia y Ambiente)
The objective is to present a matrix to identify environmental and social aspects which may impact the initiation, assessment, approval of final investment decision and implementation of oil and gas projects in Mexico. The matrix is applied to 19 blocks. The results demonstrate the usefulness in ease of identification of key elements which may be focus of attention to project feasibility. This may be used as tool for resource classification, and thus adapted to other countries.
The Agency for Safety, Energy and Environment (ASEA) with collaboration from the Energy Ministry (SENER) were involved while the project selection was integrated by the National Hydrocarbon Commission (CNH). CNH selected 19 blocks for review with 75 oil and gas projects. SENER and ASEA developed a matrix with clear identification of environmental and social aspects which may have an impact on the potential implementation of each project. The traffic light and multivariate analysis methods were adopted to colour code the environmental and social elements. This coding allowed quick identification of key areas which need to be addressed for project feasibility.
The selected blocks were located both offshore and onshore with different environmental and social issues. Unconventional and conventional resource developments were covered in the projects. The use of the matrix provided a consistent tool for better identification and understanding of the social and environmental aspects interacting in each block. It also emphasized the main sources of information and the best way to evaluate systematically the social and environmental aspects. The application of the matrix on real blocks exposed the social and environmental aspects that must to be addressed for the oil industry to develop from a sustainable vision. The evaluation of diverse blocks allowed for the identification of common characteristics and the subsequent classification of the blocks. The developed matrix may be used as a tool for making energy policy decisions. At the national level, it may also assist in understanding and meeting some of UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDG's).
This paper presents a novel matrix to identify environmental and social elements relevant for the development of any oil and gas project. It also proposes a useful traffic light and multivariate analysis methods for the evaluation of these elements. The matrix allows quick and easy reference for identification of the key elements which may be focus of attention to oil and gas project feasibility. This approach may benefit the decision-making process within an integrated sustainability perspective.
Hwang, Jongsoo (The University of Texas Austin) | Sharma, Mukul (The University of Texas Austin) | Chiotoroiu, Maria-Magdalena (OMV Exploration & Production GmbH) | Clemens, Torsten (OMV Exploration & Production GmbH)
Several field cases reported that polymer injection in a horizontal well is a viable solution to increase oil recovery. The injectivity, however, may vary significantly depending on fluid, reservoir, and geomechanical conditions. Polymer injection without understanding these factors may lead to injectivity impairment, unswept zones, and fractures undesirable for the sweep. In this paper, we present a comprehensive viscoelastic polymer injectivity model for vertical and horizontal wells.
We developed a simulator to compute viscoelastic polymer injectivity by accounting for particle filtration, thermo-poro-elastic stress changes, fracture propagation, flow distributions among multiple layers, and viscoelastic polymer rheology. Simulation results clearly show that the contribution of shear-thickening characteristics on the polymer can have a large impact in un-fractured wells but have a much smaller impact in fractured injectors. The impact of geomechanical stress changes and subsequent induced fractures are also highlighted.
The model was then applied for a field case study to identify critical aspects needed to maintain high injectivity. Two field case wells are presented where water and viscoelastic polymer are injected for a vertical well and a horizontal well accessing the multi-layered reservoir respectively. For the two injectors, water was injected initially, and then HPAM polymer solution followed to improve oil recovery. Fracture growth and injection into a long horizontal lateral are the key factors that allowed the operator to maintain injectivity by reducing the Darcy velocity, shear rate, and shear-thickening zone. For a horizontal well, operating conditions are also identified by simulations to ensure matrix injection, which is the desired conformance and sweep improvement option.
Jackson, A. C. (Chevron Corporation) | Dean, R. M. (Chevron Corporation) | Lyon, J. (Chevron Corporation) | Dwarakanath, V. (Chevron Corporation) | Alexis, D. (Chevron Corporation) | Poulsen, A. (Chevron Corporation) | Espinosa, D. (Chevron Corporation)
Reservoir management for an economically successful chemical EOR project involves maintaining high injectivity to improve processing rates. In the Captain Field, horizontal injection wells offshore have been stimulated with surfactant-polymer fluids to reduce surrounding oil saturations and boost water relative permeability. The surfactant-polymer stimulation process described herein enables a step change in injectivity and advances the commercialization of this application. This paper explains the damage mechanism, laboratory chemical design, quality control through offshore field execution and data quantifying the results.
Phase behaviour laboratory experiments and analytical injectivity models are used to design a near wellbore clean-up and relative permeability improvement. Three field trials were conducted in wells that had observed significant injectivity decline over 1-3 years of polymer injection. Surfactant and polymer are blended with injection water and fluid quality is confirmed at the wellheads. Pressure is continuously monitored with injectivity index to determine the chemical efficiency and treatment longevity. Oil saturation changes and outflow profile distributions are analysed from well logs run before and after stimulating. Learnings are applied to refine the process for future well treatments.
The key execution elements include using polymer to provide adequate mobility control at high relative permeability and ensure contact along the entire wellbore. Repeatability of success with surfactant-polymer injection is demonstrated with decreased skin in all the wells. The key results include the oil saturation logs that prove the reduction of oil near the well completion and improves the relative permeability to aqueous phase. The results also prove to be sustainable over months of post-stimulation operation data with high injectivity.
Injectivity enhancement was supported by chemical quality control through the whole process. From laboratory to the field (from core flood experiments to dissolution of trapped oil near wellbore), surveillance measurements prove that the chemical design was maintained and executed successfully. The enhanced injectivity during clean-up allows for higher processing rate during polymer injection and negates the need for additional wells.
The application of surfactant-polymer technology can rejuvenate existing wells and avoid high costs associated with redrilling offshore wells. This improves processing rate for EOR methods and can even be applied to waterflood wells to improve the injectivity, e.g low permeability reservoirs.
The UK and the international community have an increasing interest in the benefits of a hydrogen-based economy. Existing and emerging technologies that are inherently carbon-neutral and potentially carbon-negative are increasingly attractive, given the challenge of meeting climate targets to prevent climate change and build a clean growth strategy. The integration of clean energy technologies across the UK Continental Shelf (UKCS) can increase the flexibility of the energy system, driving efficiency, cost reduction and enhancing the value of natural resources.
There are over 250 platforms and 45,000 kilometres of pipeline installed within the United Kingdom Continental Shelf (UKCS). As these assets near the end of their economic life oil and gas operators are planning to decommission these facilities in an efficient and cost-effective manner. Current cost forecasts for this activity exceed £58bn with approximately 50% borne by the operators and 50% borne by UK taxpayers.
The Hydrogen Offshore Production (HOP) project identifies an alternative to decommissioning by providing re-use options for offshore infrastructure while addressing the national challenge of a low carbon energy supply. In doing so, the project will prove the feasibility of several decentralised hydrogen generation, storage and distribution options that collectively provide a scalable offshore hydrogen production solution, whilst offsetting a portion of decommissioning costs that are currently forecast for all offshore assets and infrastructure.
HOP will tackle the challenge of bulk hydrogen production by (1) proposing viable environmental and economic technology solutions to be deployed offshore, (2) developing a new Industrial Hydrogen Production test site to both prove the industrial benefits and to aid commercialisation of emerging technology and, (3) conducting market analysis and producing the business case for the transformation of existing offshore infrastructure, re-purposing assets and demonstrating the viability for decentralised generation of hydrogen.
As part of the project, an Industrial Hydrogen Production test site will be established with Flotta (Orkney Islands) being proposed as the location. This will provide a test bed for technology, fast-tracking its development and providing a route for accelerated commercial deployment. Within a region of considerable renewable energy generation, the island of Flotta is ideally placed to benefit from local expertise, existing supply chain and advanced technology solutions. For example, the Industrial Hydrogen Production test site would greatly benefit from lessons learnt at the nearby Orkney Water Testing Centre.
This paper introduces a new core-analysis work flow for determining resistivity index (RI), formation factor (FF), and other petrophysical properties directly from an as-received (AR) set of core samples. In this paper, the authors discuss the characterization process for GR tools and how they behave in boreholes different from the one used in the University of Houston (UH) GR characterization pit. This paper discusses a study undertaken to gain better understanding of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) characteristics of volcanic reservoirs with different lithologies. Formation evaluation drew special attention at the 2019 International Petroleum Technology Conference Education Week in Beijing, 24–28 March 2019. The student team that worked on Integrated Formation Evaluation for Resources Exploration and Reservoir Delineation won the first-place award. The first subsea multiphase boosting system was installed in 1994. Since then, it has grown into a technology with a global track record. A new enabling technology known as electrically heat-traced flowline (EHTF) will be used to enable system startup and shutdown and to maintain production fluids outside of the hydrate envelope during steady-state operation. This study incorporates previous learnings, as well as globally collected data, to develop a strategy that can be used to help implement an industry-specific mental health program. The value of hidden-danger data stored in text can be revealed through an approach that can help sort and interpret information in an ordered way not used previously in safety management. This paper highlights the results of a test campaign for a tool designed to predict the short-term trends of energy-efficiency indices and optimal management of a production plant. This paper presents the recent expansion of UNFC guidance to cover social and environmental effects and the further transformation of the system to make it a valuable tool in resource management for governments and businesses.
When a rig is stacked, its owner has two choices: spend millions to keep it in good shape, or let it rust out. These two companies describe what it is like to maintain their assets for the day that a contract comes. This paper shows how a new approach to small fields could unlock more than twice the net present value (NPV) of larger conventional fields in Southeast Asia at a similar level of capital expenditure (CAPEX). This paper reviews the efforts to exploit CBM resources in Indonesia, the challenges these efforts have faced, and possible solutions that can make operations more efficient and profitable. This paper presents a literature review to determine the engineering challenges and opportunities presented by CBM production in China.
The strategy supports the Maximise Economic Recovery from UK Oil & Gas Strategy and Vision 2035, whose goal is to achieve £140 billion additional gross revenue from UKCS production by that time. The projects are designed to reduce technical risks in enhanced oil recovery and expand application of EOR methods in conventional and unconventional reservoirs. In recent years, some effort has been made to use EOR techniques, particularly CO2 injection, to extract additional oil and gas from unconventional resources. This has the potential to change the dynamics (again) of oil production from these tight and difficult reservoirs. One of my best moments is to have made the technical case for polymer flooding and to see the fruits of this several decades later.