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It will provide re ... Harkand has secured a USD 5 million contract from Swiber Offshore Mexico to perform saturation divin ... Two Bumi Armada subsidiary companies secured USD 300 million worth of contracts from ElectroGas for ... Amec Foster Wheeler has been awarded a contract by BP worth more than USD 73 million. Tam International, which provides inflatable and swellable packers for the oil and gas industry, has ... Sanchez Energy closed a deal with a subsidiary of Sanchez Production Partners to sell wellbore and a ... Penn West Petroleum has entered into a USD 321 million agreement with Freehold Royalties to sell an ... Bonterra Energy has acquired Cardium formation-focused assets in the Pembina area of Alberta, Canada ... Petrobras has sold its assets in Argentina’s Austral basin to Compañia General de Combustibles for U ... Pemex signed an agreement worth USD 1 billion with private equity firmFirst Reserve to jointly inves ... Gulfport Energy entered into an agreement to acquire Paloma Partners III for USD 300 million. Apache sold its 13% stake in the Wheatstone LNG terminal in Western Australia and 50% interest in th ... Shell Petroleum Development Company of Nigeria completed the sale of its 30% interest in Oil Mining ... Oil and gas safety company Secorp opened a new office in Hobbs, New Mexico. Bill Barrett Corp. has signed agreements with several undisclosed recipients for the sale of the maj ... Encana said it will sell its remaining 54% stake in PrairieSky Royalty via a USD-2.4-billion Cardinal Energy entered into an agreement with an unnamed seller to acquire assets whose total daily ... Petrobras has awarded a contract, worth USD 465 million over a period of 5 years, to Aker Oilfield S ... CGG received contracts for the 3D seismic acquisition of four surveys using its marine broadband tec ... IKM Subsea, a subsidiary of IKM Group, has been awarded a contract by Eni Indonesia to provide remot ... OneSubsea, Schlumberger, and Helix Energy Solutions signed a letter of intent to develop technologie ... Premier Hytemp has committed to opening a USD-20-million, 67,000-ft2 precision engineering facility ... Expro has constructed a new 20,000‑m2 facility in Macaé, Brazil.
Heavy oil is defined as liquid petroleum of less than 20 API gravity or more than 200 cp viscosity at reservoir conditions. No explicit differentiation is made between heavy oil and oil sands (tar sands), although the criteria of less than 12 API gravity and greater than 10,000 cp are sometimes used to define oil sands. The oil in oil sands is an immobile fluid under existing reservoir conditions, and heavy oils are somewhat mobile fluids under naturally existing pressure gradients. Unconsolidated sandstones (UCSS) are sandstones (or sands) that possess no true tensile strength arising from grain-to-grain mineral cementation. Many heavy oil reservoirs are located in unconsolidated sandstones.
Achieving high hydrocarbon recovery is challenging in unconventional tight and shale reservoirs. Although EOR/EGR processes could potentially improve the recovery factor beyond the primary depletion, large-scale field application of these processes are not yet established in these reservoirs. This session will focus on the latest research trends, modelling and experimental work to better understand issues involved in improved economic recovery from such reservoirs.
Temizel, Cenk (Saudi Aramco) | Canbaz, Celal Hakan (Ege University) | Gok, Ihsan Murat (NESR) | Roshankhah, Shahrzad (California Institute of Technology) | Palabiyik, Yildiray (Istanbul Technical University) | Deniz-Paker, Melek (Independent Consultant) | Hosgor, Fatma Bahar (Petroleum Software LLC) | Ozyurtkan, Mustafa Hakan (Istanbul Technical University) | Aksahan, Firat (Ege University) | Gormez, Ender (Middle East Technical University)
As major oil and gas companies have been investing in shale oil and gas resources, even though has been part of the oil and gas industry for long time, shale oil and gas has gained its popularity back with increasing oil prices. Oil and gas industry has adapted to the low-cost operations and has started investing in and utilizing the shale oil sources significantly. In this perspective, this study investigates and outlines the latest advances, technologies, potential of shale oil and gas reservoirs as a significant source of energy in the current supply and demand dynamics of oil and gas resources. A comprehensive literature review focusing on the recent developments and findings in the shale oil and gas resources along with the availability and locations are outlined and discussed under the current dynamics of the oil and gas market and resources. Literature review includes a broad spectrum that spans from technical petroleum literature with very comprehensive research using SCOPUS database to other renowned resources including journals and other publications. All gathered information and data are summarized.Not only the facts and information are outlined for the individual type of energy resource but also the relationship between shale oil/gas and other unconventional resources are discussed from a perspective of their roles either as a competing or a complementary source in the industry. In this sense, this study goes beyond only providing raw data or facts about the energy resources but also a thorough publication that provides the oil and gas industry professional with a clear image of the past, present and the expected near future of the shale oil/gas as it stands with respect to other energy resources. Among the few existing studies that shed light on the current status of the oil and gas industry facing the rise of the shale oil are up-to-date and the existing studies within SPE domain focus on facts only lacking the interrelationship between heavy and light oil as a complementary and a competitor but harder-to-recover form of hydrocarbon energy within the era of rise of renewables and other unconventionals. This study closes the gap and serves as an up-to-date reference for industry professionals. 2 SPE-198994-MS
There is a very extensive amount of information and learnings from naturally fractured reservoirs (NFRs) around the world collected throughout several decades. This paper demonstrates how the information and learnings can be linked with tight and shale reservoirs (TSRs) with the objective of maximizing hydrocarbon recovery from TSRs.
A classic definition indicates that a natural fracture is a macroscopic planar discontinuity that results from stresses that exceed the rupture strength of the rock (
Actual observations in TSRs indicate that micro and nano natural fractures do not flow significant volumes of oil or gas toward horizontal wells. Thus, the wells must be hydraulically fractured in multiple stages to achieve commercial production. Once the wells are hydraulically fractured, the area exposed to the shale reservoir is enlarged and the natural micro and nano fractures flow hydrocarbons toward the hydraulic fracture, which in turn based on the values of hydraulic fracture permeability, feeds those hydrocarbons to the wellbore. In TSRs there are also completely cemented macroscopic fractures that are breakable by hydraulic fracturing and can become very effective conduits of hydrocarbons toward the wellbore.
The link that exists between natural fractures at significantly different scales established in this paper is a valuable observation. This is so because the larger tectonic, regional and contractional (diagenetic) fractures that exist in NFRs have been studied extensively for several decades, for example in carbonates, sandstones, and basement rocks. Those learnings from NFRs have not been used to full potential in TSRs for maximizing oil and gas recoveries. This paper provides the necessary tools for remediating that situation.
The established link between NFRs and TSRs permits determining how to drill and complete wells in TSRs. It is concluded that this link will lead to (1) improvements in gas production performance, and (2) maximizing economic oil rates and recoveries under primary, improved oil recovery (IOR) and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) production schemes.
Malaieri, Mohammadreza (Schulich School of Engineering, University of Calgary) | Matoorian, Raya (Schulich School of Engineering, University of Calgary) | Aguilera, Roberto (Schulich School of Engineering, University of Calgary)
A Pickett plot is a powerful graphical technique for petrophysical analysis of well logs, which was developed initially to represent Archie's equation visually. Pickett plots rely on pattern recognition on a log-log scale observable on a set of porosities and the corresponding true resistivities taken from well logs. The analyses of these plots have been used in the past, primarily for the determination of water saturation. However, throughout the past years, Pickett plots have been extended and modified for the evaluation of other reservoir parameters of interest, such as permeability, process/delivery speed, bulk volume water, and pore throat apertures.
In some recent works, applications of the Pickett plot have been extended from representing only a snapshot on time to describing and explaining several millions of years of burial, compaction, maturation trajectories, and petroleum generation. The word ‘petroleum’ as used in this paper includes oil, gas, and natural gas liquids.
In this study, the Pickett plot has been modified and extended to include geomechanical parameters such as
Mechanical properties are usually measured in laboratory experiments such as Triaxial Compression Tests carried out on core samples. But cores are not always available for testing; therefore, the original contribution of this paper is the construction of a modified Pickett plot that can help to perform quick and reasonable evaluations of geomechanical properties while at the same time carrying out standard petrophysical analysis of petroleum reservoirs. This type of integrated petrophysical-geomechanical interpretation on a single plot is not currently available in the literature.
The emerging Vaca Muerta Formation, located in the Neuquén Basin in Southern Argentina, is the most successful Unconventional Play outside United States. In the last few years, several blocks have initialized multi-rig development programs and operators have identified interference between existing producers and newly fractured wells during the completion. The effect known as parent-child occurs when the reservoir depletion around the parent well modifies the pore pressure and induces variations in the original stress field. As a result of this effect, the parent well could be seriously damaged, the hydraulic fracture of the child well would be less efficient and there will be an unsymmetrical recovery around the child well. The parent-child effect is usually negative and impose an additional challenge on the drilling and completion sequence of the block. This contribution is an attempt to quantify the production impact of this effect using a combination of a multi-disciplinary workflow.
Unconventional reservoirs were originally developed by small oil and gas companies with stand-alone wells spread across the different basins. Later in time when major operators started to develop these projects that requires intensive capital expenditure, the factory mode was deployed to increase operational efficiency. This development strategy requires the adjustment of well spacing and completion designs to minimize well production interference while maximizing the recovery factors and economics. Despite many optimization studies have been looking for the perfect design, the ultimate recovery of wells drilled in factory mode are negatively impacted compared to a stand-alone well. Additionally, as the development of the blocks moved forward, some new wells (child) were placed next to wells on production (parent) and operators have seen an additional negative impact commonly called parent-child. Statistical data from different US Shale Plays confirmed the negative production impact of this effect (
Wang, Xianwen (Changqing Oil Company) | Fei, Shixiang (Changqing Oil Company) | Zhu, Lian (Changqing Oil Company) | Liu, Yuan (Schlumuberger) | Li, Haoyan (Schlumuberger) | Fu, Yunlong (Schlumuberger) | Wang, Weikan (Schlumuberger) | Wang, Lizhi (Schlumuberger)
For tight or unconventional reservoirs, multistage horizontal well fracturing and completion are necessary and important parts of the development. Previous studies have demonstrated that an engineered completion design improves lateral coverage and productive reservoir performance as compared with purely geometric designs. Because engineered completion design focuses on completion aspects, we introduce the idea and a case study of using geology quality (GQ) to improve multistage fracturing design in horizontal laterals. Reservoir Quality (RQ) and Completion Quality (CQ) are often based on formation evaluation result, capturing lithology, porosity, resistivity, or geomechanical properties only a few inches or feet from the wellbore. However, hydraulic fractures penetrate tens to hundreds of feet vertically and hundreds of feet horizontally. Therefore, geological factors must be considered to account for reservoir variability on a larger scale.
There are logical engineering reasons to vary the fracturing design along the lateral between stages. For a lateral that lands in the target reservoir, the fracturing design should be based not only on average reservoir properties but also reservoir height. For a lateral that lands above or below the target reservoir, special considerations must be taken to evaluate the chance that fractures will propagate into the target reservoir.
In our work, we convert this geology consideration quantitatively into a geology quality (GQ) number. This number reflects the reservoir effective height and relative distance from the wellbore, so that the fracturing design can be optimized in each stage along a horizontal lateral.
In a case study from Sulige Field, central China, we integrated GQ into six horizontal fracturing designs and operations with positive results. Breakdown issues were eliminated during the operation, and the production result satisfied expectations. Subsequent production analysis revealed the true contribution from different sand and shale sections in the lateral, enabling positive correlation to the GQ definition in the well. The addition of GQ to RQ and CQ has improved the science of optimizing fracturing design, completion staging, and perforation schemes.
Temizel, Cenk (Aramco) | Canbaz, Celal Hakan (Ege University) | Saracoglu, Onder (METU) | Putra, Dike (Rafflesia Energy) | Baser, Ali (METU) | Erfando, Tomi (Universitas Islam Riau) | Krishna, Shanker (Pandit Deendayal Petroleum University) | Saputelli, Luigi (Frontender Corporation)
Predicting EUR in unconventional tight-shale reservoirs with prolonged transient behavior is a challenging task. Most methods used in predicting such long-term behavior have shown certain limitations. However, long short-term memory (LSTM) – an artificial recurrent neural network (RNN) architecture used in deep learning – has proven to be well-suited to classifying, processing, and making predictions based on time series data with lags of unknown duration between important events. This study compares LSTM and reservoir simulation forecasts.
Available unconventional tight-shale reservoir data is analyzed by LSTM and predictions obtained. A reservoir simulation model based on the same data is used to compare the LSTM forecast with results from a physics-based model. In the LSTM forecasting, any operational interferences to the well are taken into account to make sure the machine learning model is not impacted by interferences that do not reflect the actual physics of the production mechanism on the behavior of the well.
The forecasts from the LSTM machine learning model and the physics-based reservoir simulation model are compared. The LSTM model shows a good level of accuracy in predicting long-term unconventional tight-shale reservoir behavior using the physics-based reservoir simulation model as a benchmark. An analysis of the comparison shows that the LSTM machine learning model provides robust predictions with its long-term forecasting capability. This allows for better data-driven forecasting of EUR in unconventional tight-shale reservoirs. A detailed analysis is done using the forecast results from LSTM and the reservoir simulation model, and the key drivers of the EUR response are evaluated and outlined.
Deep learning applications are limited in the oil and gas industry. However, it has key advantages over other conventional machine learning methods; especially where relationships are in time and space and not very clear to the modeler. This study provides a detailed insight into deep learning applications in the oil and gas industry by using LSTM for long-term behavior prediction in unconventional shale reservoirs.
Type curves used in the forecasting of reserves and production is not a new phenomenon in the oil and gas industry; however, it has become a critical tool in the reservoir engineer's tool kit because of the development of shale oil and gas plays and the re-development of traditional plays through horizontal drilling and multi-stage fracing. This two-day seminar is an introduction to the science behind type curves and their evolving use in today's oil and gas industry. This 2 day course will focus on the Alberta Cardium oil play and the BC Montney gas play, plus other tight light oil pays, and will provide insights into how type curves should best be created and applied. You will also identify some of the challenges behind understanding the production story and reserves assignments derived from type curves. This course is designed for engineering and geoscience professionals who may currently, or in the future, be involved in oil & gas plays where type curves are primarily used to determine future production and reserves.