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A luxurious escape in the western most part of the Arab world, Morocco has seen a surge in interest from international oil companies in the past few years, who want to tap into the country’s immense hydrocarbon potential. Mozambique has an enormous energy potential, which provides the country with favorable means to fulfill its domestic and regional energy needs for southern Africa and beyond. The latest discoveries of natural gas puts Mozambique in a very privileged position both in the region and in the world. Known for its diverse heritage and rich traditions, the Indian state of Gujarat is also a hub for modern development. It is the first state in India to set up its own gas transmission line and has the world’s largest refinery.
A luxurious escape in the western most part of the Arab world, Morocco has seen a surge in interest from international oil companies in the past few years, who want to tap into the country’s immense hydrocarbon potential. With the busy and intense streets of Seoul and the calm and refreshing nature of its mountainous range, South Korea makes a unique destination that everyone should experience at least once. The largest city located below sea level, and a UNESCO World Heritage Site, Baku, Azerbaijan, boasts scenic nature attractions and an oil industry dating back many centuries. By the end of 2018, Western Australia will be exporting nearly 50 million tonnes per annum of LNG. This is an exciting time for the young professionals lucky enough to call Perth their home.
Mozambique has an enormous energy potential, which provides the country with favorable means to fulfill its domestic and regional energy needs for southern Africa and beyond. The latest discoveries of natural gas puts Mozambique in a very privileged position both in the region and in the world. Known for its diverse heritage and rich traditions, the Indian state of Gujarat is also a hub for modern development. Cote d’Ivoire has tremendous potential in its energy sector. Although a young nation, the population led by a daring government has continuously made strides in harnessing the strengths that lie in its large young entrepreneurial and intellectual force to grow its economy.
With the busy and intense streets of Seoul and the calm and refreshing nature of its mountainous range, South Korea makes a unique destination that everyone should experience at least once. The largest city located below sea level, and a UNESCO World Heritage Site, Baku, Azerbaijan, boasts scenic nature attractions and an oil industry dating back many centuries. By the end of 2018, Western Australia will be exporting nearly 50 million tonnes per annum of LNG. This is an exciting time for the young professionals lucky enough to call Perth their home. A Harvard Business Review article explores the challenges of settling back into your own culture after returning from an assignment.
Pelucchi, Marco (Eni Upstream and Technical Services, Milan, Italy) | Sali, Jason (Eni Upstream and Technical Services, Milan, Italy) | Consalvi, Laura (Eni Upstream and Technical Services, Milan, Italy) | Pedroni, Paola Maria (Eni Upstream and Technical Services, Milan, Italy)
Effective minimization of environmental footprint can be achieved through the timely and systematic application of innovative approaches such as the Mitigation Hierarchy (MH) along O&G project lifecycle. This ensures the presence of biodiversity and sensitive areas (such as protected areas, critical habitats and threatened species) and good management practices properly inform project activities that depend and may impact on natural environment.
The MH is a framework designed to maximise impact prevention over restoration and offset, balancing development priorities with the sustainable use of natural resources. Consisting of a sequence of two preventive (avoid and minimise) and two corrective measures (restore and offset), it is adopted by the extractive sector, development banks and financial institutions as the current best available tool for achieving measurable performance objectives such as no net loss or net positive impact. However, its timely and systematic application along project lifecycle can be challenging, particularly for companies with a complex, diversified and global asset portfolio.
In line with company Policy on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (BES), we apply the MH as early as possible in the project lifecycle. To effectively minimise project environmental footprint, we prioritize preventive over corrective measures following a risk-based approach which accounts for the complexities of each project and the natural and social environment it interacts with.
Along the project lifecycle, we have faced internal and external challenges in the practical implementation of the mitigation hierarchy. Internal challenges included aligning the project engineering and financing timelines with the BES baseline and impact assessment timeline, while external challenges include balancing demands of local communities and other stakeholders, the diverse operational contexts and regulatory frameworks aligned with or lacking mitigation best practices. Innovative and collaborative approaches are therefore necessary to effectively communicate or build capacity on company science-based BES management practices.
Early exploration and development phases correspond with best opportunity to identify BES priorities and apply the preventive steps of the MH. Applications include evaluating new opportunities, spatial placement or relocation of facilities and linear infrastructure, and project scheduling. During the development phase, a suite of GIS-based tools and BES assessments provide a supportive framework to apply the MH in concept selection, definition and execution. Subsequently in the operational phase, Action Plans are used to ensure the delivery and iterative evaluation of impact mitigation and the continuous improvement of BES performance.
Through practical examples spanning different phases of the project lifecycle and sites located in biodiversity rich and sensitive areas (e.g. United States, Myanmar, Ghana, Egypt and Ecuador), this paper will illustrate how challenges can be overcome starting from early exploration phase (evaluation of new ventures), in project development (design and construction), and during production. We will also reflect on the contribution of the MH to value creation from operations in sensitive areas.
Temizel, Cenk (Saudi Aramco) | Canbaz, Celal Hakan (Ege University) | Gok, Ihsan Murat (NESR) | Roshankhah, Shahrzad (California Institute of Technology) | Palabiyik, Yildiray (Istanbul Technical University) | Deniz-Paker, Melek (Independent Consultant) | Hosgor, Fatma Bahar (Petroleum Software LLC) | Ozyurtkan, Mustafa Hakan (Istanbul Technical University) | Aksahan, Firat (Ege University) | Gormez, Ender (Middle East Technical University)
As major oil and gas companies have been investing in shale oil and gas resources, even though has been part of the oil and gas industry for long time, shale oil and gas has gained its popularity back with increasing oil prices. Oil and gas industry has adapted to the low-cost operations and has started investing in and utilizing the shale oil sources significantly. In this perspective, this study investigates and outlines the latest advances, technologies, potential of shale oil and gas reservoirs as a significant source of energy in the current supply and demand dynamics of oil and gas resources. A comprehensive literature review focusing on the recent developments and findings in the shale oil and gas resources along with the availability and locations are outlined and discussed under the current dynamics of the oil and gas market and resources. Literature review includes a broad spectrum that spans from technical petroleum literature with very comprehensive research using SCOPUS database to other renowned resources including journals and other publications. All gathered information and data are summarized.Not only the facts and information are outlined for the individual type of energy resource but also the relationship between shale oil/gas and other unconventional resources are discussed from a perspective of their roles either as a competing or a complementary source in the industry. In this sense, this study goes beyond only providing raw data or facts about the energy resources but also a thorough publication that provides the oil and gas industry professional with a clear image of the past, present and the expected near future of the shale oil/gas as it stands with respect to other energy resources. Among the few existing studies that shed light on the current status of the oil and gas industry facing the rise of the shale oil are up-to-date and the existing studies within SPE domain focus on facts only lacking the interrelationship between heavy and light oil as a complementary and a competitor but harder-to-recover form of hydrocarbon energy within the era of rise of renewables and other unconventionals. This study closes the gap and serves as an up-to-date reference for industry professionals. 2 SPE-198994-MS
There is a very extensive amount of information and learnings from naturally fractured reservoirs (NFRs) around the world collected throughout several decades. This paper demonstrates how the information and learnings can be linked with tight and shale reservoirs (TSRs) with the objective of maximizing hydrocarbon recovery from TSRs.
A classic definition indicates that a natural fracture is a macroscopic planar discontinuity that results from stresses that exceed the rupture strength of the rock (
Actual observations in TSRs indicate that micro and nano natural fractures do not flow significant volumes of oil or gas toward horizontal wells. Thus, the wells must be hydraulically fractured in multiple stages to achieve commercial production. Once the wells are hydraulically fractured, the area exposed to the shale reservoir is enlarged and the natural micro and nano fractures flow hydrocarbons toward the hydraulic fracture, which in turn based on the values of hydraulic fracture permeability, feeds those hydrocarbons to the wellbore. In TSRs there are also completely cemented macroscopic fractures that are breakable by hydraulic fracturing and can become very effective conduits of hydrocarbons toward the wellbore.
The link that exists between natural fractures at significantly different scales established in this paper is a valuable observation. This is so because the larger tectonic, regional and contractional (diagenetic) fractures that exist in NFRs have been studied extensively for several decades, for example in carbonates, sandstones, and basement rocks. Those learnings from NFRs have not been used to full potential in TSRs for maximizing oil and gas recoveries. This paper provides the necessary tools for remediating that situation.
The established link between NFRs and TSRs permits determining how to drill and complete wells in TSRs. It is concluded that this link will lead to (1) improvements in gas production performance, and (2) maximizing economic oil rates and recoveries under primary, improved oil recovery (IOR) and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) production schemes.
Malaieri, Mohammadreza (Schulich School of Engineering, University of Calgary) | Matoorian, Raya (Schulich School of Engineering, University of Calgary) | Aguilera, Roberto (Schulich School of Engineering, University of Calgary)
A Pickett plot is a powerful graphical technique for petrophysical analysis of well logs, which was developed initially to represent Archie's equation visually. Pickett plots rely on pattern recognition on a log-log scale observable on a set of porosities and the corresponding true resistivities taken from well logs. The analyses of these plots have been used in the past, primarily for the determination of water saturation. However, throughout the past years, Pickett plots have been extended and modified for the evaluation of other reservoir parameters of interest, such as permeability, process/delivery speed, bulk volume water, and pore throat apertures.
In some recent works, applications of the Pickett plot have been extended from representing only a snapshot on time to describing and explaining several millions of years of burial, compaction, maturation trajectories, and petroleum generation. The word ‘petroleum’ as used in this paper includes oil, gas, and natural gas liquids.
In this study, the Pickett plot has been modified and extended to include geomechanical parameters such as
Mechanical properties are usually measured in laboratory experiments such as Triaxial Compression Tests carried out on core samples. But cores are not always available for testing; therefore, the original contribution of this paper is the construction of a modified Pickett plot that can help to perform quick and reasonable evaluations of geomechanical properties while at the same time carrying out standard petrophysical analysis of petroleum reservoirs. This type of integrated petrophysical-geomechanical interpretation on a single plot is not currently available in the literature.
The emerging Vaca Muerta Formation, located in the Neuquén Basin in Southern Argentina, is the most successful Unconventional Play outside United States. In the last few years, several blocks have initialized multi-rig development programs and operators have identified interference between existing producers and newly fractured wells during the completion. The effect known as parent-child occurs when the reservoir depletion around the parent well modifies the pore pressure and induces variations in the original stress field. As a result of this effect, the parent well could be seriously damaged, the hydraulic fracture of the child well would be less efficient and there will be an unsymmetrical recovery around the child well. The parent-child effect is usually negative and impose an additional challenge on the drilling and completion sequence of the block. This contribution is an attempt to quantify the production impact of this effect using a combination of a multi-disciplinary workflow.
Unconventional reservoirs were originally developed by small oil and gas companies with stand-alone wells spread across the different basins. Later in time when major operators started to develop these projects that requires intensive capital expenditure, the factory mode was deployed to increase operational efficiency. This development strategy requires the adjustment of well spacing and completion designs to minimize well production interference while maximizing the recovery factors and economics. Despite many optimization studies have been looking for the perfect design, the ultimate recovery of wells drilled in factory mode are negatively impacted compared to a stand-alone well. Additionally, as the development of the blocks moved forward, some new wells (child) were placed next to wells on production (parent) and operators have seen an additional negative impact commonly called parent-child. Statistical data from different US Shale Plays confirmed the negative production impact of this effect (
Wang, Xianwen (Changqing Oil Company) | Fei, Shixiang (Changqing Oil Company) | Zhu, Lian (Changqing Oil Company) | Liu, Yuan (Schlumuberger) | Li, Haoyan (Schlumuberger) | Fu, Yunlong (Schlumuberger) | Wang, Weikan (Schlumuberger) | Wang, Lizhi (Schlumuberger)
For tight or unconventional reservoirs, multistage horizontal well fracturing and completion are necessary and important parts of the development. Previous studies have demonstrated that an engineered completion design improves lateral coverage and productive reservoir performance as compared with purely geometric designs. Because engineered completion design focuses on completion aspects, we introduce the idea and a case study of using geology quality (GQ) to improve multistage fracturing design in horizontal laterals. Reservoir Quality (RQ) and Completion Quality (CQ) are often based on formation evaluation result, capturing lithology, porosity, resistivity, or geomechanical properties only a few inches or feet from the wellbore. However, hydraulic fractures penetrate tens to hundreds of feet vertically and hundreds of feet horizontally. Therefore, geological factors must be considered to account for reservoir variability on a larger scale.
There are logical engineering reasons to vary the fracturing design along the lateral between stages. For a lateral that lands in the target reservoir, the fracturing design should be based not only on average reservoir properties but also reservoir height. For a lateral that lands above or below the target reservoir, special considerations must be taken to evaluate the chance that fractures will propagate into the target reservoir.
In our work, we convert this geology consideration quantitatively into a geology quality (GQ) number. This number reflects the reservoir effective height and relative distance from the wellbore, so that the fracturing design can be optimized in each stage along a horizontal lateral.
In a case study from Sulige Field, central China, we integrated GQ into six horizontal fracturing designs and operations with positive results. Breakdown issues were eliminated during the operation, and the production result satisfied expectations. Subsequent production analysis revealed the true contribution from different sand and shale sections in the lateral, enabling positive correlation to the GQ definition in the well. The addition of GQ to RQ and CQ has improved the science of optimizing fracturing design, completion staging, and perforation schemes.