Enachescu, Michael (Memorial University of Newfoundland) | Kearsey, Stephen (Memorial University of Newfoundland) | Hogg, John (EnCana Corporation) | Einarsson, Paul (Geophysical Service Incorporated) | Nader, Sam (Geophysical Service Incorporated) | Smee, Jerry (ExAlta Energy)
Interpretation of Orphan Basin new and old seismic data in conjunctions with marine potential field data and information from a dozen wells has allowed the identification of two sedimentary areas with distinct basin fill and structural evolution: 1) the West Orphan and 2) the East Orphan basins, respectively. The East Orphan Basin had a long geodynamic evolution starting with rifting in late Triassic and continued with successive phase of extension and minor transtention. Based on geophysical interpretation, well ties and regional tectonics, the West Orphan Basin is gas prone while the East Orphan Basin has a petroleum system similar to basins on the Grand Banks and West Ireland. The East Orphan Basin is the latest Canadian Frontier exploration area to be licensed for exploration and to hold great expectations for new giant field discoveries.
Ewida, A.A. (Petro-Canada East Coast, Engineering & Technology) | Hurley, S.J. (Petro-Canada East Coast, Engineering & Technology) | Edison, S.H. (Petro-Canada East Coast, Engineering & Technology) | The, C.E. (Petro-Canada East Coast, Engineering & Technology)
Rabinowitz, P.D. (Texas A&M University ) | Francis, T.J.G. (Texas A&M University ) | Baldauf, J.G. (Texas A&M University ) | Coyne, J.C. (Texas A&M University ) | Harding, B.W. (Texas A&M University ) | McPherson, R.G. (Texas A&M University ) | Merrill, R.B. (Texas A&M University ) | Olivas, R.E. (Texas A&M University )
There are a number of developments underway in the Arctic and East Coast frontier regions of Canada These relate to oil and gas, mineral exploitation and transportation. The magnitude of some of these resources is described together with a discussion of some of the economic constraints on their development. Environmental conditions on both land and sea are described. Individual developments are described and the technology challenges and requirements of each project portrayed.
There are a number of resource developments planned or underway In the frontier regions of Canada. The most commonplace development relates to oil and gas. Currently oil is being produced from the Scotian Shelf where there is no ice and on a seasonal basis from Bent Horn In the High Arctic. The Hibernia project is going ahead with production slated to commence in 1997. there is also a potential for oil and gas development from the Beaufort Sea and MacKenzie Delta. One aspect which tends to be overlooked in considering frontier developments is mineral production. There are two producing mines in the High Arctic, Nanisivik on Baffin Island and Polaris on Little Cornwallis Island. The Izok developmentin the centre of the Barrens is currently receiving active consideration. For planned developments to proceed, or existing ones to continue, they have to be viable at world market prices for their particular resource. Transportation is a key element in establishing the viability of producing a resource from the Arctic. It is interesting to note that historically the frontier regions tempted the first Europeans to Canada. The fishery of the Grand Banks commenced at the end of the 15th century. Fur trading Into Hudson Bay started in the 17th century Whaling attracted attention to the Eastern Arctic and later the Western Arctic. All these activities were seaborne and ships evolved which were a match to the environment.
During the past year, exploration of the deep ocean floor through scientificocean drilling has yielded important results with respect to evolution of oceancrust and continental margins and paleoceanography. This paper describes theOcean Drilling Program's (ODP's) scientific and technical achievements duringits ninth year of field operations and discusses areas of future study.
The ODP, an international basic research program of scientific oceandrilling, is the successor to the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP). TexasA&M U. (TAMU), College Station, TX, is the science operator. ODP is fundedby the U.S. Natl. Science Foundation with major contributions from 18 othercountries. This international partnership is called the Joint OceanographicInstns. for Deep Earth Sampling (JOIDES). To date, JOIDES Resolution (Fig. 1),ODP's scientific drillship, has retrieved sediment and hard rock samples frombeneath the deep-sea floor at 308 sites (Table 1) in search of answers toimportant scientific problems designated by JOIDES. These sites in theAtlantic, eastern and western Pacific, and Indian oceans include high-latitudezones bordering east and west Antarctica, Baffin Bay, and the Mediterranean,Caribbean, Norwegian, Sulu, Celebes, Philip pine, Japan, and Coral seas. Thusfar, 1,315 scientists from around the world have brought more than 510,000individual core samples from ODP cruises to their respective institutions forfurther study. JOIDES member countries include the U.S., France, Japan, theU.K., Canada, Australia, Germany, and members of the European ScienceFoundation: Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Italy, Greece, The Netherlands,Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and Turkey.
JOIDES Resolution contains a seven-story, 1115 m2 laboratory stack with thestate-of-the-art equipment necessary to ana lyze the physical and chemicalproperties of the collected rocks. The 50-member scientific and technical team,which remains aboard the vessel for expeditions that last about 2 months, hasthe following types of laboratories available for research: sedimentology,physical properties, paleomagnetic, chemistry, paleontology, petrology,thin-section, X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, and downhole measurement.In addition, photographic, electronics, and refrigerated-core storagefacilities are available. During approach or departure from drillsites, theship's geophysics laboratory records and processes digital single-channelseismics. JOIDES Resolution is also equipped with a research-oriented computersystem designed to perform routine chemical, arithmetic, and graphics tasks.Two mainframe computers serve as a cen tral processor and data library for 50microcomputers distributed throughout the laboratories.
Table 2 shows main characteristics of the dynamically positioned JOIDESResolution.
TAMU provides services for curation and distribution of cored material andassociated databases and the production of ODP publications.
A series of formal and informal published scientific reports is issuedduring the period shortly before each cruise through approximately 3 yearsafter the cruise. Our principal formal publication, Proceedings of the OceanDrilling Program, is divided into two parts: Initial Reports, which containdescriptions of drilling sites, including core photographs, and is distributed12 to 15 months after the cruise; and Scientific Results, which containspeerreviewed specialty papers and is distributed 36 months after thecruise.
Three core repositories are managed by TAMU/ODP: one at Scripps Instn. ofOceanography, U. of California, San Diego, CA, houses the Indian and PacificOcean cores collected by the predecessor program, DSDP; one at Lamont-DohertyGeological Observatory of Columbia U., New York City, houses the DSDP and ODPAtlantic Ocean cores; and one at TAMU houses the ODP-collected Indian andPacific Ocean cores. These repositories contain more than 160 km of corecollected since 1968 by DSDP and ODP. A fourth core repository, to open inearly 1994 in Bremen, Germany, will house future Atlantic Ocean cores.Scientists throughout the world may request samples from the ODP curator atTAMU, who maintains records of all proposed investigations to study the DSDPand ODP samples.
Data generated from cores together with geophysical data are entered into acomputerized database consisting of several data files (i.e., geochemistry andphysical properties). The database can be searched using almost any specifiedcriteria contained in the data files. Searches that cross-reference severaldata-file documents are available to the scientific community.
Scientific and Technical
Objectives and Operations
During the first 9 years of ODP, we ad dressed many of the scientific andtechni cal objectives defined at two conferences on scientific ocean drilling(Conferences on Scientific Ocean Drilling [COSOD's] 1 and 2). The scientificobjectives defined at COSOD II include investigating changes in the globalenvironment, mantle/crust inter actions, fluid circulation in the crust, theglobal geochemical budget, stress and deformation of the lithosphere, andevolutionary processes in oceanic communities. In addition, new technologiesnecessary to implement these scientific investigations, such ashigh-temperature drilling, drilling and coring in difficult formations(fractured basalts, unconsolidated sands, chert, etc.), and downholemeasurements, were addressed.
Previous reports summarized the scientific objectives for Legs 100 through146. Below we summarize results from the informal preliminary reports publishedat ODP for Cruises 147 through 152, completed during our ninth year of fieldoperations, and describe future cruises in the Atlantic Ocean. Fig. 2 givesgeneralized ODP site locations.
Rabinowitz, P.D. (Texas A&M University ) | Francis, T.J.G. (Texas A&M University ) | Baldauf, J.G. (Texas A&M University ) | Coyne, John (Texas A&M University ) | Harding, B.W. (Texas A&M University ) | McPherson, R.G. (Texas A&M University ) | Merrill, R.B. (Texas A&M University ) | Olivas, R.E. (Texas A&M University )
The cementation factor or Archie's exponent ( m) and the Kozeny-Carman constant (C) have specific effects on electric and hydraulic conduction in porous media. In the present study, both parameters were derived from well log data for fourteen Hibernia and Terra Nova wells in the Jeanne d'Arc Basin (JDB) offshore the eastern coast of Newfoundland, Canada. The purpose of this study is to verify that both parameters (m and C) are applicable for shaly-saline water formations under high overburden pressure at depths between 3 to 5 km, saturated with multi-phase fluids. The results obtained show that the Kozeny-Carman constant (C), termed as the product of tortuosity (T) times shape factor ( Sf), fits well with the product of tortuosity (T) times cementation factor (m). It is suggested that it is more accurate to call (m) "shape factor" instead of "cementation factor" because it is a strong indicator of shape of particles. It is also suggested that an average value for the Kozeny-Carman constant of 7.5 be used in the Kozeny-Cannan equation for consolidated sediments saturated with multi-phase fluids, and an average value of 2.28 for the cementation factor be used in the Archie-Winsauer equation. Tortuosity, as a main parameter controlling the variations in both m and C, indicates the complicated electric and hydraulic tortuous passages in the JDB sediments.
Marine geophysical and geological investigations of the eastern margin of North America were first carried out in the 19505 by the Canadian and American governments and university research agencies.1 Exploration by oil companies outlined the principal sedimentary basins located offshore Newfoundland, and eventually established the presence of hydrocarbons in the Jeanne d' Arc Basin (JDB). Some of the JDB wells are capable of producing up to 2×103 barrels per day.2 Nine wells drilled in the Hibernia oil field in the JDB have delineated a field with recoverable oil reserves in the order of 500 to 800 million barrels.1 The Grand Bank basins including the JDB began to develop during the Late Traissic to Early Jurassic by rifting between North America and Africa. 1 Geophysical surveys, including deep refraction and potential field studies indicated a thick sedimentary cover. The sediments, of more than 20 km thickness3, are mainly composed of shales, sandstones, siltstones. and carbonates4,5,6 of very fine to medium grain and crystal sizes.7