Multilateral completion systems allow the drilling and completion of multiple lateral boreholes within a single mainbore. This allows for alternative well-construction strategies for vertical, inclined, horizontal, and extended-reach wells. Multilaterals can be constructed in both new and existing oil and gas wells. General benefit provided by multilateral well design is barrel cost reduction. Multilaterals help to both reduce CAPEX and OPEX of the project and increase production.
Figure 1 shows the type of production response that is possible when applying a polymer gel treatment to a waterflood injection well to improve sweep efficiency. The figure shows the combined production-response of the four direct offsetting production wells to the gel-treated injection well. The gel treatment was applied for waterflood sweep-improvement purposes to the naturally fractured Embar carbonate formation surrounding Well O-7 of the highly mature SOB field in the Big Horn basin of Wyoming. The wide variations in water/oil ratio (WOR) and oil production rate are quite common in many of the well patterns of this highly fractured reservoir. Sydansk provides more details regarding the 20,000 bbl gel treatment.
A directional well can be divided into three main sections--the surface hole, overburden section, and reservoir penetration. Different factors are involved at each stage within the overall constraints of optimum reservoir penetration. Most directional wells are drilled from multiwell installations, platforms, or drillsites. Minimizing the cost or environmental footprint requires that wells be spaced as closely as possible. It has been found that spacing on the order of 2 m (6 ft) can be achieved.
In July 2012, SPE held a two-day summit on human factors to create a common understanding of the strategic challenges for the oil and gas E&P industry, to identify what is known and unknown in the field, and to explore possible actions to accomplish the needed change indicated by the U.S. National Commission on the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling report. Attendees created a technical report based on the discussions and conclusions at the summit as a guideline on the human factors risks in E&P operations and what can be done to reduce those risks and increase safety. Members of the summit decided that the industry must move to an organizational culture in which process safety is as well managed as personal safety. Leadership is critical to a process safety culture. The decisions, actions, and statements made by leaders, the reward and incentive structures that leaders implement, the way leaders behave and interact with people throughout the organization, and the decisions and actions they take to balance safety against commercial imperatives, directly determine the attitude to safety within an organization.
Typically, it is banded or clamped to the production tubing from below the wellhead to the ESP unit because it is not designed to support its own weight. It is a specially constructed three-phase power cable designed specifically for downhole well environments. The cable design must be small in diameter, protected from mechanical abuse, and impervious to physical and electrical deterioration because of aggressive well environments. They are available in a wide range of conductor sizes or gauges. They can be manufactured in either round or flat configurations, using several different insulation and metal armor materials for different hostile well environments.
Anyone selling something new for offshore exploration and production has to be able to answer a simple question from customers, “How can we save some money?” For Norwegian oil companies, change is coming in many forms: steel, sensors, software, and standards. A panel discussion at the 2016 OTC in Houston focused on the factors that influence deepwater developments, the scenario for the future, and the opportunities available within the industry. One key question asked was: What oil price is required to keep deepwater viable over the long term? Representatives from various national oil companies, multinational operators, service companies, and fabricators discuss the roles individual countries in the Asia Pacific region will play in the global oil market and the overall development of the region.
Intervention and workover operations can significantly affect the structural integrity and fatigue life of subsea-wellhead systems. Methodologies for wellhead-fatigue analysis have improved, but have yet to account for thermal effects along the well. As part of a project that involves the use of four artificial islands to drill and complete more than 300 extended-reach-drilling (ERD) wells in a giant offshore oil field, several completion designs have been piloted for brownfield development.
This paper discusses the first multilateral well with a Level-4 junction combined with an inflow-control device (ICD) planned, designed, and drilled in the Upper Burgan reservoir of Raudhatain field, north Kuwait. Several designs for autonomous inflow-control devices (AICDs) are available. The comparative properties and abilities of these designs are the focus of this paper. As part of a project that involves the use of four artificial islands to drill and complete more than 300 extended-reach-drilling (ERD) wells in a giant offshore oil field, several completion designs have been piloted for brownfield development.
As part of a 2-year deal, the Kreuz Glorious will help with the inspection of offshore jackets in the Arabian Sea. Kreuz will also provide personnel for project management and offshore construction. McDermott announced a letter of award for a contract from Reliance Industries for the deepwater KG-D6 subsea field development in the Krishna Godavari Basin.
When panels in an instrument equipment shelter kept tripping and the occasional smell of H2S led to an investigation of the rationale. Although a rare occurrence, this paper presents a strategy for prevention through careful site selection. A wide range of corrosive elements and compounds from a variety of crudes has led to a renewed industry focus on corrosion and the effects it has on pipelines and vessels. Through a range of experiments the authors demonstrate that small amount of H2S can be beneficial in reducing corrosion in 3% Cr steel. Offshore production systems can be impacted negatively by numerous problems attributed to bacterial activity, associated hydrogen sulfide and biogenic iron sulfides, and mercaptan production.