In this paper, we present for the first time, a classification system for naturally-occurring gas hydrate deposits existing in the permafrost and marine environment. This classification is relatively simple but highlights the salient features of a gas hydrate deposit which are important for their exploration and production such as location, porosity system, gas origin and migration path. We then show how this classification can be used to describe eight well-studied gas hydrate deposits in permafrost and marine environment. Potential implications of this classification are also discussed.
Condensate blockage presents a serious production problem due to loss of gas productivity. Several methods have been proposed to resolve condensate blockage to restore the well productivity, most commonly used technique is hydraulic fracturing. Although, it is most commonly used, it is not always feasible and favorable due to its inclusion of costly chemicals such as surfactants, which could also be as hazardous material. Our objective in the current study, is replacing such surfactants with natural green surfactants which are more economical and environmentally friendly.
Interfacial tension and contact angle experiments were carried out to examine the efficiency of two different natural green surfactants in comparison to two commonly used chemical surfactants in fracturing fluids. The results revealed that natural green surfactant is efficient in reducing the interfacial tension by 74.1% compared to 94.8% when using alcohol-based surfactants. Moreover, the natural green surfactant showed stronger effect in altering the surface wettability in sandstone formations towards strongly water-wet with a contact angle reduction of 61% compared to 32% in the case of alcohol-based surfactants.
Based on the concentration used here, the natural green surfactants are more cost-effective, a product cost reduction of more than 50% can be obtained. Being efficient in reducing the interfacial tension, altering the surface wettability towards stronger water-wet, abundant in nature, environmentally friendly, and, cheaper cost, this new proposed natural surfactant can replace the currently used chemical surfactants for condensate bloackage.
Arctic is widely considering as the last world biggest storehouse of natural resources. But its unique nature should always remain the main concern for all the energy projects development in this area. To achieve this development of the Arctic should go along with innovative technologies development. The ambition of this paper is to provide assessment of main Arctic projects on international energy markets development.
Harstad is not the end of the world but you can see it from there, a real frontier area. From this area above the polar circle exploration and development has been lead in the Norwegian and the Barents seas. Exploration wells are being drilled in the now opened former disputed areas, was it worth the fuss? "Technology forum about the Arctic in the Arctic" has always been the slogan of the SPE Northern Norway Workshop. In March 2019, this two-day biannual workshop will raise the stakes, broaden the scope, and showcase all the latest success in the region.
This article highlights interesting applications of machine learning in the oil and gas industry in drilling, formation evaluation, and reservoir engineering. Each project uses a data-driven model to solve a previously complex problem using machine learning to augment an existing solution. Considering most of the rigs deal with human-machine interface systems, the role of human factors is at the heart of any successful operation. Eye-tracking technology can be useful in real-time operation centers where ocular movement data can improve the professionals’ performance. As the petroleum engineering discipline embarks on its second century of existence, what changes will academia make to keep up with the times?
Will Blockchain Become the New Operational Backbone in Energy? Energy companies are looking to distributed ledger technology—otherwise known as blockchain—to help navigate the complex transactional systems that make up their operations. What is blockchain, and what makes it valuable to our industry? Statoil’s integrated operations center on the Norwegian continental shelf is one of several initiatives operators and service companies have set in motion to improve condition monitoring and maximize production on their assets.
The technology will provide Equinor a continual feed of updated reservoir information from its Johan Castberg and Johan Sverdrup fields with the aim of improving well placement, production, injection, and—ultimately—recovery. Statoil has submitted a long-awaited development plan for what will become Norway’s northernmost development.