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Ten years ago, news reports frequently cited peak oil as a looming problem facing our world. Technology and innovation has since been developed that allows us to tap into rocks that were previously deemed impossible to extract oil from, reversing this trend. The Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin has been a leader in this movement with entrepreneurs using new technology to develop our resources in a safe and reliable way. Ten years ago, news reports frequently cited peak oil as a looming problem facing our world. Technology and innovation has since been developed that allows us to tap into rocks that were previously deemed impossible to extract oil from, reversing this trend.
This course will provide a general overview of current and emerging heavy oil recovery methods with emphasis on field experiences in Alberta and steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD). Participants will learn about the concepts, field development, reservoir performances, applicability, challenges, and issues of the various in-situ recovery methods. Discussions in this session focus on carbonate reservoir recovery processes and mechanisms, from field experiences to laboratory observations. Topics include thermal casing and cement, Sand control, well intervention, and wellbore simulations. This session addresses the fundamentals and tools for predicting benefits of and usage of solvent for enhanced recovery.Â Topics include both water-soluble solvents and the more traditional hydrocarbon solventsâ€™ viscosity, relative permeability, heat and mass transfer, sampling, and reservoir performance prediction.
We will leave USC at 7:30 AM to take the Boat ride to the Islands at 9am. The tour will take about 2 hours and we shall return by 1pm. We will be visiting one of the 4 islands in the Long Beach Harbor that are the sites of drilling and production into the East Wilmington Oilfield. THUMS islands, built in the 1960s, allow the eastern portion of the field to be produced with environmental, spatial and logistical efficiency. Come and learn how these islands are both beautiful and practical. The tour will include a boat ride around Long Beach Harbor, a behind-the-scenes tour of one of the islands, a close-up view of an active drill rig, the production office where all the island wells are monitored, and award-winning landscaping designed by the same architect who created Disneyland’s Tomorrow Land. All must wear closed-toed, flat shoes (no heels or open-toed shoes allowed). Goggles and hardhats will be provided.
This paper presents a state-of-the-art review of scale-inhibitor-analysis techniques and describes how these techniques can be used to provide cost-effective scale management. Calcium sulfate (CaSO4) in the form of gypsum and anhydrite is one of the more prevalent evaporite minerals typically found in the carbonate rocks of the western Canadian sedimentary basin (WCSB).
The complete paper discusses the importance of adequate preparation and the approaches used to overcome challenges of EOR operations, including handling back-produced polymer. Several well-stimulation products and techniques have been seen to benefit well productivity from recent field trials and implementations in carbonate reservoirs, including simpler acid fluid systems, integrated work flows, and coiled-tubing bottomhole assemblies. Researchers use novel methodology to measure the thermo-electric properties of native crude. Business Development VP Kirstie Boyle joins The SPE Podcast to talk startups. Recently part of a $4.5-million funding round, Kirstie shares what makes Interface Fluidics flow.
This comprehensive course is an introduction or refresher for the techniques of evaluating Canadian oil and gas properties, but the techniques used in this course also apply to oil and gas properties elsewhere in the world. There is ample opportunity to work problems in class. By the end of this course, participants will be able to evaluate an oil and gas property and interpret evaluations done by others. The material in the course is very practical, with many tips and insights in evaluating wells, groups of wells, properties and companies. This course is for engineers, geologists, geophysicists, land negotiators, accountants, technologists, and anyone who wants to understand the process and results of evaluating Canadian oil and gas properties.
Africa (Sub-Sahara) Drilling began in the SL-5-11 block in the deepwater shelf of west Africa. The targeted depth is 4700 m in water depths of more than 2000 m. Lukoil Overseas (49%) is the operator in partnership with Oranto (30%) and PanAtlantic (21%). Asia Pacific Drilling began on an exploration well in Block G4/50 in the Gulf of Thailand. The planned depth is 2350 m targeting Miocene sandstones. The well is estimated to contain mean prospective recoverable resources of 30 million bbl of oil. Salamander Energy is the operator with a 100% interest. Drilling has been completed on the Klalin-14 development well located in the West Papua region of Indonesia. The well encountered 81 ft of total net pay and tested production rates of 9.8 MMscf/D of natural gas and 220 B/D of condensate on a 24/64-in.
Africa (Sub-Sahara) A drillstem test of BG Group's Mzia-3 well--located in Block 1, offshore southern Tanzania, at a water depth of around 1800 m--reached a maximum sustained flow rate of 101 MMscf/D of natural gas. The Mzia prospect is a multilayered field of Upper Cretaceous age with a gross gas column estimated at more than 300 m. The Mzia and Jodari discoveries in Block 1 are estimated to hold a combined total of 9 Tcf gross recoverable resources. BG Group (60%) is operator, with partners Pavilion Energy (20%) and Ophir Energy (20%). Circle Oil discovered oil at its El Mediouni-1 exploration well in the Mahdia permit, 120 km east of the port of Sousse, Tunisia, at a water depth of 240 m. The gross oil zone interval in the Lower Birsa carbonate is 77 m, while the Upper Ketatna carbonate has a minimum interval of 48 m, subject to confirmation by logs. Circle is the operator with a 100% working interest in the Mahdia permit.
The development of unconventional basins across North America for the past decade initially caused some in the industry to wonder if challenges found in unconventional basins would require new chemistries and technologies. As the basins have been produced and water chemistries evaluated and treated, it has become clear that established scale inhibitor chemistries and methodologies are suitable to treat unconventional scaling scenarios. However, the number of applicable chemistries can be limited as some of the most common scale inhibitor chemistries have been found lacking in iron tolerance. The biggest lesson learned over the course of the past decade has been to not underestimate the role that iron can play as spoiler not only in performance of scale inhibitor chemistries, but also in test methodologies and monitoring techniques. While the need to account for iron in conventional programs has not been taken for granted, the amount of iron produced in unconventional production basins has led to a re-evaluation of just how severely iron in solution can impact scale programs from product testing and selection all the way through to program monitoring.
This paper highlights the brine chemistries in major North American unconventional basins, especially regarding iron. Test methods and results from dynamic scale loop and anaerobic static bottle testing will be highlighted as well as the limitations of using field brines in product evaluations. Field observations will be discussed to support the importance of proper product selection as well as monitoring techniques.
This subject has implications for the industry as unconventional basins across North America continue to search for program improvements to drive reductions in total operational costs. Additionally, as unconventional basins are developed outside of North America, the lessons learned can be applied to efficiently develop best in class scale inhibitor programs. As appreciation for the impact of high levels of iron on scale inhibitor performance continues to evolve, there is a possibility that a smaller amount of iron tolerant scale inhibitors will limit the treatment options available in unconventional production basins.
Zeng, Jie (The University of Western Australia) | Liu, Jishan (The University of Western Australia) | Li, Wai (The University of Western Australia) | Tian, Jianwei (The University of Western Australia) | Leong, Yee-Kwong (The University of Western Australia) | Elsworth, Derek (The Pennsylvania State University) | Guo, Jianchun (Southwest Petroleum University)
The permeability of fractured sorbing media, such as shale and coal, is mainly controlled by effective stresses and sorption-induced strains. Although the influence of effective stresses on permeability has been extensively studied, how sorption-induced strains affect permeability evolution has not been fully understood. Sorption-induced strains can impact the permeability in opposite ways at different time scales. If the swelling occurs at matrix surfaces (local swelling), the swelling strain purely reduces fracture aperture and results in a permeability decline. However, when the whole rock is fully invaded by injected gas, the swelling of the whole rock (global swelling) increases fracture aperture and the bulk volume, enhancing the permeability. Most existing models only use fracture (pore) pressure to describe rock swelling, assuming that the rock is fully invaded and matrix-fracture pressure equilibrium is achieved. They cannot explain some experimental data because rocks may never be fully invaded during permeability measurement. Moreover, different pore types are not considered and local swelling can be heterogeneous due to complex matrix components.
In this paper, the non-equilibrium effects are depicted by defining two continua (matrices and fractures) with distinct pressure values. The transition between local swelling and global swelling is quantified by the pressure difference between the two systems. The larger the pressure difference is, the heavier local swelling effects will be. And global swelling is only a function of fracture pressure. Different pore types are included in our permeability model. And the heterogeneous local swelling strain is characterized by a splitting strain function.
This model is verified against laboratory data from common permeability measurement conditions. Under constant effective stress and constant confining stress conditions, the permeability changes at different times and becomes stable after a relatively long time. With the matrix-fracture pressure difference first increases to a maximum value and then decreases to zero, local swelling effects change from zero to a peak value and finally drop to zero. By combining permeability curves at different injection pressure levels, 3-D permeability surfaces are obtained. The impacts of rock properties, heterogeneous local swelling, and multiple pore types on permeability evolution are analyzed. Adsorption and mechanical properties control specific regions of permeability curves. Effects of heterogeneous local swelling are determined by the adsorption capacity of the dominant matrix component. The existence of multiple pore types makes the permeability curve deviate from those of single-pore-type cases and affects a wider range of permeability curves compared with heterogeneous local swelling.