The SWP project is located in a mature waterflood undergoing conversion to CO2-WAG operations at Farnsworth, Texas, USA. Utilized CO2 is anthropogenic, sourced from a fertilizer and an ethanol plant. Major project goals are optimizing the storage/production balance, ensuring storage permanence, and developing best practices for CCUS.
This paper provides a review of work performed toward development of a 3D coupled Mechanical Earth Model (MEM) for use in assessment of caprock integrity, fault reactivation potential, and evaluation of stress dependent permeability in reservoir forecasting. Mechanical property estimates computed from geophysical logs at selected wellbores were integrated with 3D seismic elastic inversion products to create a 3D "static" mechanical property model sharing the same geological framework as the existing reservoir simulation model including 3 major faults. Stresses in the MEM were initialized from wellbore stress estimates and reservoir simulation pore pressures. One way and two way coupled simulations were performed using a compositional hydrodynamic flow model and geomechanical solvers.
Coupled simulations were performed on history matched primary, secondary (waterflood), and tertiary (CO2 WAG) recovery periods, as well as an optimized WAG prediction period. These simulations suggest that the field has been operating at conditions which are not conducive to either caprock failure or fault reactivation. Two way coupled simulations were performed in which permeability was periodically updated as a function of volumetric strain using the Kozeny-Carmen porosity-permeability relationship. These simulations illustrate the importance of frequent permeability updating when recovery scenarios result in large pressure changes such as in field re-pressurization through waterflood after a long primary depletion recovery period. Conversely, production forecasting results are less sensitive to permeability update frequency when pressure cycles are short and shallow as in WAG cycles.
This paper describes initial work on development of a mechanical earth model for use in assessment of geomechanical risks associated with CCUS operations at FWU. The emphasis of this work is on integration of available geomechanical data for creation of the static mechanical property model. Preliminary coupled hydro-mechanical simulations are presented to illustrate some of the key diagnostic output from coupled simulations which will be used in later work for in depth evaluation of specific risk factors such as induced seismicity and caprock integrity.
The co-located SPE Canada Unconventional Resources and Heavy Oil Technical Conferences are the premier platform in North America to enable the exchange of information through case studies, technical advancements, and business strategies that allow energy projects to deliver favorable returns at prevailing oil prices. The co-located SPE Canada Unconventional Resources and Heavy Oil Technical Conferences are the premier platform in North America to enable the exchange of information through case studies, technical advancements, and business strategies that allow energy projects to deliver favorable returns at prevailing oil prices. The cyclic recalibration of the energy industry can be devastating if complacent and sluggish behaviors drive development decisions. While market analysts are bearish in their outlooks, technically nimble organizations have become resilient in maximizing value from unconventional and heavy oil reservoirs. The shift to fast-paced and low-cost development has required a holistic transformation of the business, where operators and service companies collaborate to deploy innovative and cost-effective solutions without compromising safety or the environment.
This paper presents the performance results from one of the waterflood pilots in the Viewfield Bakken. An 18-well numerical-simulation model was built to represent an operator’s Lower Shaunavon waterflood-pilot area. Numerical simulation was used, and a history match on the pilot area was performed.
In advanced data-driven analytics, data from the well and the formation are integrated with field measurements that represent completion and hydraulic fracturing practices and are correlated with production from each well. As the number of wells in an asset increases, so does the accuracy and reliability of the analytics. Attendees will become familiar with the fundamentals of data-driven analytics and the most popular techniques used to apply them such as conventional statistics, artificial neural networks, and fuzzy set theory. This course will demonstrate through actual case studies (and real field data from thousands of shale wells) how to impact well placement, completion, and operational decision-making based on field measurements rather than human biases and preconceived notions. The opening session will examine the theory and practice of data science at a high level, focusing on basic concepts and principles behind data preparation and organization, data analysis, machine learning, and other predictive techniques.
This paper evaluates the incremental benefit of water injection in a conventional gas reservoir when compared with gas compression. This paper presents the performance results from one of the waterflood pilots in the Viewfield Bakken. Understanding of formation damage is a key theme in a waterflood project. An integrated multidisciplinary approach is required to determine an optimal design and strategy.
The Society of Petroleum Engineers-Permian Basin Section (SPE) is collaborating with University of Texas Permian Basin's (UTPB) STEM Academy and Communities in Schools Permian Basin (CISPB) to kick-off the new school year with energy education! All oil and gas professionals and students are invited to participate in energy4me, SPE's initiative to educate K-12th graders about the importance of energy and practical STEM applications in the energy industry. Energy4me has lesson plans available for volunteers so they can immediately utilize and apply them for interactive activities and classroom discussions. The kickoff event is meant to benefit elementary to high school students of the UTPB STEM Academy and CISPB. Allowing the Permian Basin community to educate will foster the students' interest in STEM and inspire them to pursue STEM careers.
Achieving high hydrocarbon recovery is challenging in unconventional tight and shale reservoirs. Although EOR/EGR processes could potentially improve the recovery factor beyond the primary depletion, large-scale field application of these processes are not yet established in these reservoirs. This session will focus on the latest research trends, modelling and experimental work to better understand issues involved in improved economic recovery from such reservoirs.
We are pleased to invite you to the SPE Liquids-Rich Basins Conference–North America, taking place at the Odessa Marriott Hotel & Convention Center in Odessa, Texas on 11–12 September 2019. The North American liquids-rich basins have been resilient in years past with operators in these areas pushing the limits of exploiting these resources in these prolific basins. Innovation and technology are propelling the industry to new highs, specifically in the areas of hydraulic fracturing, data management, and automation. The golden age of oil production in North American basins is here, fueled by the grit of the people who work them. This conference will focus on the key technologies and strategies driving results in the development of the liquids-rich basins across North America and investigate emerging opportunities that will drive sustainability of these plays in the future.
PY-1 is one of the few fields in India producing hydrocarbons from Fractured Basement Reservoir. The field was developed with nine slot unmanned platform with gas exported through a 56 km 4" multiphase pipeline to landfall point at Pillaperumalnallur. Field was put on production in November 2009 with three extended reach wells. The production performance of the field had some surprise and declined earlier than expected. As a result, based on the conclusions drawn from an integrated subsurface study, a two wells reentry campaign to side track wells Mercury and Earth was planned to be executed in Q1 2018. The objectives of this paper are twofold: 1. Review the production performance of a granitic basement gas field and share learnings which may be useful for similar fields being developed elsewhere.
This is the second of a three-part tutorial describing a workflow for evaluating unconventional resources including organic mudstones and tight siltstones. Part 1 reviewed the unique challenges and provided an overview of the proposed workflow (Newsham et al., 2019). Part 2 describes in detail the many components of the workflow and how they come together to determine the storage capacity of the reservoir. Part 3 links the petrophysical results to the production potential in terms of fractional flow and water cut and will present alternate cross-checks of the storage properties to validate the results.
As stated in Part 1, one of the most important functions that the petrophysicist provides is the estimation of accurate storage properties. However, when the authors survey the range of workflows used to estimate the storage capacity of these complex systems, we find a wide range of options. Solutions can vary from simple deterministic to more complex probabilistic approaches. Whatever the method, the objective should be the same: to provide consistent, portable hence reliable estimation of hydrocarbon storage capacity, also known as “Petrophysics CPR.” As mentioned in Part 1, estimation of hydrocarbon storage is more than just the calculation of porosity and water saturation. In this tutorial, we will describe a workflow that has been successfully used to evaluate thousands of wells in the Permian Basin with great consistency. The authors have nearly 100 wells with core data to calibrate the workflow. We will show examples of the workflow’s portability by highlighting examples from the Midland Basin, the Texas Delaware Basin and the New Mexico Delaware Basin. We will show how every property measured in core matches to log-based profiles using a combination of deterministic and the constrained simultaneous solution methods. The workflow also is found to be reliable in other basins throughout the world, however, the examples will be confined to the Permian Basins.