The Dallas-Forth Worth Emerging Leaders Program (ELP) was established with a networking social in September 2005. A second social was held in October during the 2005 SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition in conjunction with the Gulf Coast and Delta Section ELPs, recording an attendance of more than 100 people. The November social, which was held in Dallas, had attendance of more than 20 people. Dinner forums and luncheons focusing on soft skills are planned for early this year. The target audience is young engineers and professionals, but more-experienced members are welcome to attend as well.
This seminar will teach participants how to identify, evaluate, and quantify risk and uncertainty in everyday oil and gas economic situations. It reviews the development of pragmatic tools, methods, and understandings for professionals that are applicable to companies of all sizes. The seminar also briefly reviews statistics, the relationship between risk and return, and hedging and future markets. Strategic thinking and planning are key elements in an organisation’s journey to maximise value to shareholders, customers, and employees. Through this workshop, attendees will go through the different processes involved in strategic planning including the elements of organisational SWOT, business scenario and options development, elaboration of strategic options and communication to stakeholders.
PETRONAS FLNG SATU (PFLNG1) is a floating liquefied natural gas facility producing 1.2 million tonnes per annum (mtpa) of LNG, on a facility that is 365m long, and 60m wide, making it among the largest offshore facility ever built. The PFLNG1 project is the first of its kind in the world and is the first deployment of PETRONASâ€™ Floating Liquefied Natural Gas (FLNG) technology, consolidating the traditional offshore to onshore LNG infrastructure into a single facility. This will see a giant floating facility capable of extracting, liquefying and storing LNG at sea, before it is exported to customers around the globe. The FLNG journey has come a long way since 2006, with many technological options explored to monetise and unlock the potential of small and stranded gas fields. Moving an LNG production to an offshore setting poses a demanding set of challenges â€“ as every element of a conventional LNG facility needs to fit into an area roughly one quarter the size in the open seas whilst maintaining safety and increased flexibility to LNG production and delivery. The keynote address describes the breakthrough features of PFLNG1 â€“ the worldâ€™s first floating LNG facility; and the pioneering innovation that it brings to the LNG industry.
Decisions in E&P ventures are affected by Bias, Blindness, and Illusions (BBI) which permeate our analyses, interpretations and decisions. This one-day course examines the influence of these cognitive pitfalls and presents techniques that can be used to mitigate their impact. Bias refers to errors in thinking whereby interpretations and judgments are drawn in an illogical fashion. Blindness is the condition where we fail to see an unexpected event in plain sight. Illusions refer to misleading beliefs based on a false impression of reality.
Determination of ideal horizontal targets for unconventional reservoirs often necessitates an understanding of the reservoir from the global tectonic to the sub-microscopic scale. When selecting a target zone, it is necessary to consider the abundance, composition, and delivery of sediment to basins; the production, preservation, and alteration of organic matter; and the diagenetic and structural modification of the stratigraphic section. Here, we focus on two sedimentologic phenomena common to the Marcellus Shale of the Appalachian Basin of southwestern Pennsylvania. Namely, we explore the strategy of targeting high organic carbon/biogenic silica facies and the challenges posed by encountering carbonate concretion horizons.
Geochemical observations including Si/Al and Si/Zr, and thin section and scanning electron microscopy indicate abundant recrystallized biogenic quartz cement in the Marcellus Shale. Burial models suggest that prior to the end of mechanical compaction; the Marcellus entered the oil window, and presumably began generating organic matter-hosted porosity at a depth of ~1200m. Notably, at similar organic carbon content, samples with elevated biogenic silica yield higher porosity and permeability. These observations suggest that biogenic quartz may play a role in the deliverability of hydrocarbons by providing a compaction resistant framework conducive to the preservation of organic matter-hosted pores and pore throats. Further, biogenic quartz-rich facies demonstrate increased rates of penetration allowing for more efficient drilling of laterals.
However, carbonate concretions encountered while drilling horizontal Marcellus Shale wells negatively affect drilling operations by reducing drilling rates, damaging bits, and requiring excessive steering corrections to penetrate or extricate the bit from the horizon. Carbonate concretions form by the anaerobic oxidation of methane in a narrow zone perhaps just a few meters below the seafloor. Crucial to this mechanism is a slowing or pause in sedimentation rate that would have held the zone of carbonate precipitation at a fixed depth long enough for concretions to grow. Using this model, we attempt to predict the size and location of concretions to avoid encountering them while drilling. Field observations of Upper Devonian shale-hosted concretion dimensions suggest that Marcellus-hosted concretions up to three feet in length are possible. Hiatuses in sedimentation and potential concretion horizons were predicted using uranium to organic carbon ratios. The attachment of uranium to organic carbon macerals occurs across the sediment-water interface. Therefore, an increase in the abundance of uranium per unit organic carbon indicates a cessation in sedimentation and the potential for concretion growth. Indeed, when comparing well log response to core, uranium to organic carbon excursions predicted the location of two concretion horizons.
Evans, Kaitlin (West Virginia University) | Toth, Randy (West Virginia University) | Ore, Tobi (West Virginia University) | Smith, Jarrett (West Virginia University) | Bannikova, Natalia (West Virginia University) | Carr, Tim (West Virginia University) | Ghahfarokhi, Payam (West Virginia University)
Data obtained from the Marcellus Shale Energy and Environment Laboratory (MSEEL) project was used to understand how pre-existing fractures behave under elevated pore pressure. 1680 pre-existing fractures were identified along the lateral of the MIP-3H well. Image logs and 3D computer tomography (CT) scan of the cores was used for fracture location and most fractures were identified as calcite-filled and resistive. In addition, sonic scanner well logs provided minimum horizontal stresses for every few feet, and the pilot-hole density log provided the vertical stress at each point along the lateral. This collection of geologic and geomechanical data helped us to establish an anisotropic stress field with separate stress tensors for each stage. Twenty-eight stress tensors were constructed corresponding to twenty-eight completion stages within the MIP-3H well. The vertical stress component of the tensors was calculated by integrating MIP-3 pilot-hole density log to the average depth of each stage. The minimum horizontal stresses (Shmin) were also calculated by averaging the recorded Shmin readings in each stage. Maximum horizontal stress (Shmax) was calculated by a third-party logging vendor by adding a 400 psi to the Shmin values. The stress tensors were transformed into a geographic coordinate system along with the dip and strike of each fracture. The transformed coordinate system (North-East-Down) was used when applying Cauchy's Stress theorem to every singular fracture within each stage to calculate the normal and shear stress components on each fracture. A Mohr diagram was created for each stage with two failure criteria lines corresponding to mu (μ) values of 0.6 and 1.0. Fractures are displayed on the diagram using their calculated normal and shear stresses. The pore pressure increase found from the average treatment pressure for each stage was applied and whether natural fractures experienced tensile or shear failure was inspected. The objective is to understand if natural fractures experience shear failure or tensile failure during hydraulic fracturing and determine if there is a contrast in the response between resistive (calcite-filled) and conductive fractures. It was observed that prior to hydraulic fracturing, resistive natural fractures are mechanically dead and are in the stable region of the Mohr diagrams. Results show that although the majority of the pre-existing fractures are identified as resistive and mineral-filled, they undergo tensile failure when pore pressure was increased during hydraulic fracturing.
PY-1 is one of the few fields in India producing hydrocarbons from Fractured Basement Reservoir. The field was developed with nine slot unmanned platform with gas exported through a 56 km 4" multiphase pipeline to landfall point at Pillaperumalnallur. Field was put on production in November 2009 with three extended reach wells. The production performance of the field had some surprise and declined earlier than expected. As a result, based on the conclusions drawn from an integrated subsurface study, a two wells reentry campaign to side track wells Mercury and Earth was planned to be executed in Q1 2018. The objectives of this paper are twofold: 1. Review the production performance of a granitic basement gas field and share learnings which may be useful for similar fields being developed elsewhere.
In this paper, we present for the first time, a classification system for naturally-occurring gas hydrate deposits existing in the permafrost and marine environment. This classification is relatively simple but highlights the salient features of a gas hydrate deposit which are important for their exploration and production such as location, porosity system, gas origin and migration path. We then show how this classification can be used to describe eight well-studied gas hydrate deposits in permafrost and marine environment. Potential implications of this classification are also discussed.
Cai, Junjie (Shenzhen Branch, CNOOC China limited) | Wen, Huahua (Shenzhen Branch, CNOOC China limited) | Gao, Xiang (Shenzhen Branch, CNOOC China limited) | Cai, Guofu (Shenzhen Branch, CNOOC China limited) | Hu, Kun (Shenzhen Branch, CNOOC China limited)
Huizhou Depression is in the exploration peak stage at present. The main target layer is gradually extending from the middle-shallow traps to the deep paleogene traps and the shallow lithologic traps, and the difficulty of exploration is totally increased. Paleogene layer oil&gas exploration is faced with the problems of deep buried depth, reservoir heterogeneity and uncertain distribution of high-quality hydrocarbon sources.
By combining tectonic evolution analysis with sequence stratigraphy, considering regional stress background and the utilizing of the seismic facies, the main faults tectonic features, stratigraphic sedimentary characteristics, the distribution position of sedimentary center and the control effect of the palaeogeomorphology on the sedimentary distribution range deposited from the transition zone are analyzed.
It is concluded that the lower Wenchang period's tectonic movement was dominated by the southern depression control fault, and the semideep-deep lacustrine high-quality hydrocarbon source rocks were mainly distributed in the south of the Huizhou Depression, such as HZ 26 Sag and the subsag of the XJ30 Sag. The braided river delta deposited from XJ30 transfer zone is mainly distributed along the west side of the long axis of XJ30 sag, and the semideep-deep lacustrine facies mudstone is formed in the east of XJ30 Sag. In the upper Wenchang period, the activity of the depression control faults in the northwest of the Huizhou Depression becomes stronger than the south, which influences the sedimentary center migrated from southeast to the northwest. The sediment provenance of XJ30 transfer zone deposits perpendicular to the long axis of the XJ30, and the long braided river delta is formed in the south side of the XJ24 Sag. In Enping period, which is changed from strong rift phase to rift-depression transition phase, the shallow lacustrine-swamp facies are taken as the main source rocks, and shallow braided river delta is widely developed, while the sediment from the provenance of XJ30 transfer zone is weakened.
The northern and southern migration of the transfer zone provenance river delta and the northern and southern distribution characteristics of the source rocks of semideep-deep lacustrine facies are caused by the differences of the northern and southern fault activities during the Paleogene period. Through the combination of structural evolution analysis and sedimentary characteristics analysis, the analysis of paleogeomorphology's effect on the control of sedimentary system is of great importance to the identification of high-quality paleogene reservoirs and hydrocarbon sources.
The Ceduna Sub-basin is one of the few remaining frontier basins in Australia today. Few exploration wells have been drilled in the basin and none have encountered hydrocarbons. The current study aims to investigate the hydrocarbon prospectivity of an area of interest (AOI) within the distal part of the Ceduna Sub-basin, where no well information is available.
The study uses 3D seismic data and employs principles from geophysics, structural geology, sedimentology, sequence stratigraphy, and petroleum systems analysis in a comprehensive investigation to understand the Ceduna Sub-basin. Multiple 2D basin models were created for the AOI to test different scenarios in a detailed risk analysis of the petroleum system and its major controls. They were identified from a comprehensive literature review and after a thorough interpretation of the 3D seismic survey in the AOI.
Results show that the best reservoir is located within the low stand systems tract (LST) deposits of the Hammerhead Sandstone (Ss) and Top Tiger Ss. The potential source rock occurs in the condensed high stand system tract (HST) deposits in the Base Tiger Ss and White Pointer Ss. 1D modeling showed that these source rocks may have generated hydrocarbons as their depth is <9 km. The critical moment during the source rock history was at 80 Ma coinciding with the deposition of the Hammerhead Ss.
Based on the regional structural framework, faults were initiated after source rock deposition. Several growth faults may pose a risk in terms of hydrocarbon leakage. Different 2D models have advanced the understanding of the petroleum systems in the AOI. The results showed that the most prospective areas are within a rollover anticline play and those areas where intra-formational seals are present. The model confirms that fault integrity represents the prime risk across the basin.
The current study contributes to understanding of the Ceduna Sub-basin by identifying two different plays in the AOI: rollover anticline and tilted fault block. Probability analysis of the different petroleum elements shows that the rollover anticline play has the highest geological probability of success.