The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) dictates under international law how all offshore maritime frontier waters are to be "divided up" in the world today. All Law of the Sea (LOS) applications, begin with coastlines and/or their related coastal frontages. The United Nations (UN) lists 152 countries (conventional coastal states) as being applicable to the rules of procedures for LOS applications. Additionally, and more recently, we include three coastal countries (landlocked "sea/lake" states) in the Caspian Sea, as well as seven additional coastal (landlocked "lake") states, for the Great Lakes of Africa. Therefore, basic LOS mapping principles, that begins with coastlines and/ or coastal frontages will impact 162 countries in the world today. The accuracies of present-day mapped features that are components of all coastal (and landlocked "sea/lake") states' coastlines', will be used to produce various mathematical applications for the LOS. The offshore Arctic maritime spaces (for five relevant littoral countries), is one of the more complex regions of the world, and, from a current LOS standpoint, basic summaries on the status of LOS and how it directly relates to the oil and gas industry will be reviewed.
The ‘Frontier Arctic’ offshore has been explored on and off since the 1970s, driven by oil price and areas open for leasing or licensing. While a widespread, future return is questionable, operators contemplating a return can benefit from past experience. Insight and perspective are provided on the technical and non-technical challenges and impact on the business challenge. Actions and opportunities to change the overall cost and non-technical business risk dynamic are discussed.
‘Frontier Arctic’ oil and gas resources have characteristics of 1) being located outboard of established offshore regions of oil and gas exploration and development, 2) having physical attributes of water depth and ice conditions that require the use of specialized equipment or measures to safely and cost effectively drill, and 3) having non-technical business risks with the potential for high business consequences. This loose definition includes much of the Alaskan Arctic, the Canadian Beaufort Sea, Greenland, the far northern Barents Sea, and much of the Russian shelf. The technical and non-technical issues associated with exploration drilling in these regions are well-established, but not necessarily well-integrated.
Interest in ‘Frontier Arctic’ exploration may be rekindled in the future depending upon commodity prices; however, the ability to make material cost changes are limited due to the nature of the technical challenge; and the "Frontier Arctic’ will likely remain a target for environmental activism. Furthermore, exploration drilling would need to take place now or in the reasonably near future if ‘Frontier Arctic’ resources are to have a chance of contributing to a future oil or gas supply shortfall. Notwithstanding, Arctic offshore exploration can be expected to continue in regions where cost and business risk can be managed such as the southern Barents Sea and nearshore Alaska Beaufort Sea region.
Dear Colleague: On behalf of the Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE) and the Conference Programme Committee, we would like to thank all contributors who submitted paper proposals for the SPE International Conference and Exhibition on Health, Safety, Security, Environment, and Social Responsibility, which takes place 11-13 April 2016, in Stavanger, Norway. It's the Baker Hughes way. Protecting people, assets, and the environment is all a part of our purpose: enabling safe affordable energy, improving people's lives. A Perfect HSE Day means no injuries. And it's the way we do business: Oil and gas services rendered through the Perfect HSE Day This edition of the oil and gas industry's premier HSE event celebrates its 25th year.
Dansereau, Véronique (Université de Grenoble, Grenoble) | Weiss, Jérôme (Université de Grenoble, Grenoble) | Got, Jean-Luc (Université de Savoie, Le Bourget-du-Lac) | Saramito, Pierre (Université de Grenoble, Grenoble)
1 The small and large deformations of geomaterials
From the continuum mechanics point of view, a number of geomaterials are both (1) damageable elastic solids in which highly localized features emerge as a result of failure and (2) materials experiencing high, permanent strains that dissipate stresses. In this sense, modelling their deformation lies between a solid mechanics (small deformations) and a fluid dynamics (large deformations) problem.
One important example is the Earth's crust, in which brittle fracturing and Coulomb stress redistribution are known to take place and for which scaling properties have been recognized for years (Kagan & Knopoff 1980; Turcotte 1992 and others). Along active faults, co-seismic fracturing activates aseismic creep, leading to deformations that can be larger than those associated with the fracturing itself (Cakir et al. 2012) and to slip rates that decrease progressively over years to decades due to various healing processes (Gratier et al. 2014). Creep relaxes a significant amount of elastic strain, retarding stress accumulation along some portions of faults and concentrating stresses on other locked portions. Hence this dissipative process should be included in earthquakes models (Cakir et al. 2012; Gratier et al. 2014). Another example is sea ice, which deforms rapidly under the action of the wind and ocean drags, in the brittle regime, and for which scaling properties have also been recently recognized (Marsan et al. 2004 and many others). In this case, much larger deformations occur once faults, or ice “leads” (see Fig. 1a, A), are formed and divide the ice cover into ice plates called “floes” (Fig. 1a, B), as these plates move relative to each other with much reduced mechanical resistance. In sea ice models, these large deformations must be accounted for as they set the overall drift and long-term evolution of the ice pack.
In such contexts, the challenge of the continuum modelling approach lies in the representation of the discontinuities that arise within a material due to fracturing processes using continuous variables and grid-cell averaged quantities. On the numerical point of view, another challenge arises as the methods employed must allow resolving the extreme gradients associated with these discontinuities while limiting the diffusivity associated with advective processes. Here, we present a simple continuum mechanical framework called Maxwell-Elasto-Brittle (Maxwell-EB), built in the view of allowing a transition between the small deformations associated with the fracturing and the larger, permanent, post-fracture deformations, while having the capability of damage mechanics models to reproduce the observed space and time scaling properties of the deformation of brittle geomaterials. The theoretical and numerical development of this new rheological model will be discussed of in two different geophysical contexts: (1) modelling the drift and deformation of Arctic sea ice at regional scales and (2) representing the pre-eruption deformation of a volcanic edifice.
An ePoster is an electronic version of a traditional ePoster presented on a plasma screen. It offers the added benefit of animation, audio, and video and enhances the visual experience to provide greater interactivity between the attendee and the ePoster author. Results of Environmental Risk Assessment Carried Out On Nearshore Gabon Installations Taking Into Account Environmental Sensitivity J. Libre, TOTAL E&P HSEQ; S. Condemine, TOTAL Gabon Who are Biodiversity And Ecosystem Services Stakeholders? Simonova, Northern (Arctic) Federal University named after MV Lomonosov; G. Degteva, Northern State Medical University; E. Lebedeva, CJSC Meridian"" A Social License to Operate in the Arctic: Exploring the Challenges and Opportunities for Offshore Oil and Gas Activities in Greenland C. Smits, E. Huber, Royal HaskoningDHV Driving Efficiencies in Oil and Gas Through a Risk Based and Systematic Approach to HSE Contractor Management I.M. Threadgold, Threadgold Safety Management
ABSTRACT: During the design process in rock engineering Hoek-Brown failure envelope is used for the determination of rock mass failure envelope mainly in brittle rocks. An important input parameter of the Hoek-Brown failure envelope is the Geological Strength Index (GSI), which varies between 0 and 100, and concentrates on the description of rock structure and block surface conditions. There are several methods which define GSI but a general international standard has not been specified yet. Our aim is to analyze different methods of GSI determination on the basis of observations during the construction phase of the Bátaapáti radioactive waste repository. Examinations of the values determined on-site gave significantly different results. Different correlations were determined between the calculated GSI values.
The Geological Strength Index (GSI) represents today the most widely used engineering index for the categorization of rock mass quality for obtaining input data into the continuum numerical analysis codes and closed form solutions based on the Hoek-Brown failure criterion (e.g. Marinos & Hoek 2000, Marinos et al. 2007). The exact determination of this value is very important for the exact calculation of the failure envelope or the deformation moduli of the rock mass.
Ván & Vásárhelyi (2014) determined the sensitivity of the GSI based on mechanical properties, such as the Hoek-Brown equation (failure envelope of the rock mass) and the Hoek-Diederichs equation (deformation moduli of the rock mass). It was shown that sophisticated empirical equations can be highly sensitive to the uncertainties in the GSI values - even if the error of the GSI is only 5%, the relative sensitivity can reach 100%!
Recently, Morelli (2015) analyzed the different calculation methods of GSI. Using Monte-Carlo simulations, his simulation results indicate that the diverse relationships may predict dissimilar values of the GSI for the same rock mass. He obtained the highest GSI value from the equations which apply the conventional RMR1989 values, and the lowest results were obtained by using the RMi method for GSI calculation.
Berg, Tor E. (Norwegian Marine Technology Research Institute (MARINTEK)) | Selvik, ørjan (Norwegian Marine Technology Research Institute (MARINTEK)) | Rautio, Rune (Akvaplan-niva) | Bambulyak, Alexei (Akvaplan-niva) | Marichev, Andrey (Norwegian University of Science and Technology)
This paper discusses the status and development prospects of Arctic escape, evacuation and rescue (EER) solutions in the Greenland and Barents Seas, and briefly describes two recent maritime rescue operations in Norwegian waters. Successful outcomes of maritime EER operations in Arctic waters depend on a number of factors, including design of escape routes, available means of evacuation, distance to available SAR resources, type of rescue units, early information/detection related to maritime accidents, and metocean and ice conditions. Selected items are discussed below.
European Arctic waters comprise the areas from Eastern Greenland to the Barents Sea. There are some major differences between preferred escape, evacuation and rescue (EER) solutions for Greenland, Iceland, Norway and Russia. This is mainly due to differences in national EER philosophies, organization and availability of search-and-rescue (SAR) resources. In Norwegian waters, the preferred EER solution is based on governmental SAR helicopters, while ships operated and coordinated by state salvage departments are the most important tools for Russian EER at sea. This difference reflects the distinctions between the Norwegian and Russian Arctic waters in terms of distances, infrastructure and conditions. Norway has approximately 20% winter ?? ice cover, while most of Russia’s Arctic waters are covered by ice in winter. Russia's SAR system in the Arctic is based on icebreakers and ice-class salvage vessels.
This paper discusses the current status of and development prospects for Arctic EER solutions for the Greenland and Barents Seas,and briefly describe how successful outcomes of maritime EER operations in Arctic waters depend on a number of factors such as the design of escape routes, available evacuation means, distance to available appropriate SAR resources, early information about and detection of maritime accidents, and metocean and ice conditions. The challenges we discuss include:
- Traffic surveillance and detection of maritime accidents
- Operability of evacuation means under Arctic conditions
- Transit speed for seaborne rescue vehicles
- Transfer of personnel from lifeboat/life rafts to helicopter or rescue vessel.
To supply the World's future energy demand, new areas such as the Arctic region are being explored to find oil and gas resources. Offshore Arctic oil and gas operations are to an increasing extent subject to global public opinion and scrutiny. Potential impacts can easily become a topic for discussion, locally and globally. This manuscript will explore the challenges and opportunities of a social license to operate for oil and gas activities in the Arctic. Building or re-building a sustainable, trustful relationship with local communities is crucial, as well as balancing the risks and benefits at a local level. However, the challenges for Arctic oil and gas activities do not only relate to the local level, but are intrinsically linked to the global level including the debate on climate change and the use of fossil fuels. At the same time, if the social license to operate of an Arctic project is under pressure, this can potentially affect the social license of not only a company but the entire oil and gas sector.
The main challenge for oil companies that want to explore the Arctic is the strong link between their project's social license to operate and the political and legal licenses it needs to obtain. Pressure on the social license could alter the conditions or put on hold the political and sometimes even the legal licenses of an activity. Furthermore, the strong link between Arctic projects and the global level could potentially jeopardize the global success of the entire industry. Creating a level playing field in the fragmented governance of Arctic oil and gas activities is a challenge. Collaboration with local, national and international stakeholders, the use of social media, and a thorough understanding of a social license to operate and its influence on a project, company and the oil and gas sector is therefore paramount. This manuscript will use oil and gas development in Greenland as a case study to shed light on the mechanisms that link these licenses and what opportunities oil companies have to positively influence their social license to operate. This includes working on trustful local relationships via human capital development and using industry knowledge to connect to other stakeholders and work on the industry's image via social media.
The Arctic is a pressure cooker, with the potential to quickly mobilise crowds at different levels of scale. The social license to operate of an Arctic project is strongly linked to other geographical scales and the reputation of the company/the sector it belongs to. Any lesson learned here can be applied to other parts of the World.
This study demonstrates applications of core and advanced well logs to computing general log-based stochastic multimineral solutions to build detailed 1D shale petrofacies model and integrate with chemostratigraphy to better decipher depositional environments of the Bakken Shale units in the Williston Basin of North Dakota, USA. In particular, relationships between trace element geochemical data and organic matter coupled with well-log-derived crossplots and solutions are explored to understand vertical and areal heterogeneity of the shale members in the Bakken Formation. A methodology based on mineral composition and organic-matter richness derived from well logs and core data is proposed for facies classification in the Bakken mudstone units. The results show that Bakken shale members are heterogeneous, in terms of mineralogy and organic matter, which can be classified as five different petrofacies, reflective of changes in depositional and diagenetic environment. Highly organic-rich shale facies units were deposited in euxinic environment, whereas relatively organic-poor shale units were deposited in anoxic and dysoxic conditions. Statistical analyses suggest that trace element geochemical data can be applied to a significant degree of confidence to compare with log-derived facies model to characterize different shale petrofacies and construe the depositional environment in detail.
Lithofacies or petrofacies classification, assigning a rock type to specific rock samples on the basis of petrography or measured petrophysical properties, is fundamental to subsurface investigations. Clastic and carbonate petrofacies have been studied extensively for depositional and diagenetic environment studies. However, research in black shale petrofacies is relatively rare, most being based on either single well studies or descriptive analysis (Schieber, 1999; Hickey and Henk, 2007; Egenhoff and Fishman, 2013; Bhattacharya et al., 2015). A case study from the Bakken Formation in the Williston Basin in North America has been chosen for this study.
khair, Elham Mohammed M. (Sudan University of Science & Technology) | Zhang, Shicheng (China University of Petroleum, Beijing) | Abdelrahman, Ibrahim Mustafa (Sudan University of Science & Technology)
The current study presents elastic properties model for Fulla Oilfield in northeast of Block 6 in south of Sudan. Due to the poor formation consolidation and relatively viscose fluid, reservoirs may predictably produce massive amounts of sand and numerous troubles were found in the field as a result of sanding. No documented researches were found to introduce good parameters for rock strength and rock failure conditions through the field. Therefore, an accurate technique for predicting rock failure conditions may yield good profits and improve the economic returns through preventing sand production from the formations. General correlations were presented to accurately describe rock strength parameters for the field; the work utilizes the application of the wireline porosities to be used as a strength indicator through the combination of rock mechanical theories with the characterization of Fulla oilfield. Log porosities (density, sonic and neutron) were calibrated with the core measured porosity, and the best matching porosity were correlated with the dynamic calibrated strength parameters by different correlations. The results support the evidence of the use of porosity as an index for mechanical properties; power functions were found more reliable than the exponential functions, and can be used with a high degree of confidence; also it is more accurate than the Shale Index model presented in previous work for same field; however, the result does not support the direct linear expression presented in the literature for other field due to the variations in the field conditions.