Talos Energy made a big splash in 2015 when it won two of the fourteen blocks offered in Mexico's inaugural Round 1 lease sale. The company and its partners drilled the Zama-1 exploration well in July 2017, the first well drilled offshore by the private sector in Mexico's history, and later announced a massive discovery with over a billion barrels of oil in place. Now the company is moving forward to reach final investment decision and bring the field on line by the early 2020s. Outside of Mexico, Talos has reshaped its portfolio through its recent merger with Stone Energy, becoming public in the process. Following the transaction, the company now operates several US Gulf of Mexico facilities as well as subsea tie-backs.
Gas injection is a proven EOR method in the oil industry with many well-documented successful field applications spanning a period of more than five decades. The injected gas composition varies between projects, but is typically hydrocarbon gas, sometimes enriched with intermediate components to ensure miscibility, or carbon dioxide in regions such as the Permian Basin, where supply is available at an attractive price.
Miscible nitrogen injection into oil reservoirs, on the other hand, is a relatively uncommon EOR technique because nitrogen often requires a prohibitively high pressure to reach miscibility. Unlike other injection gases, the minimum miscibility pressure for nitrogen decreases with increasing temperature. In fact, in deep, hot reservoirs containing volatile oil, nitrogen may develop miscibility at a pressure similar to the MMP for hydrocarbon gas or carbon dioxide. The phase behavior is more complicated than what can be captured by correlations and hence requires equation-of-state calculations.
Results from a recent EOR screening study in ADNOC indicate that a couple of high-temperature oil reservoirs in Abu Dhabi may be potential targets for miscible nitrogen injection. This paper discusses key aspects of the EOS modeling. Advanced gas injection PVT data are available to enable a fair comparison between nitrogen, carbon dioxide and lean hydrocarbon gas. In this work, we have modelled and analyzed the phase behavior of two volatile oil systems with respect to nitrogen, hydrocarbon gas, and carbon dioxide injection, as part of a reservoir simulation study, which will be covered in a subsequent publication; see
The objective of this work is the prediction of water salinity evolution trend for Mexico Area-1 development that foresees the injection of a mixture of seawater and produced water from the six different reservoirs connected to the same FPSO.
Prediction of salinity trend evolution is crucial for forecasting possible biogenic hydrogen sulphide (H2S) formation and foreseeing the relating impacts over completion and facility material selection and on health, safety and environment (HSE) management.
Traditional numerical simulations through stand-alone models do not consider the effects of the reciprocal interaction among the fields on production profiles and are not able to simulate salinity evolution of produced and injected water mixture, variable over time. To overcome this limit, a new tool was developed. It consists in a python script that, introduced into the Area-1 Integrated Asset Model, allowed to generate forecasts of the water salinity along the project lifetime. These simulations were essential for souring risk assessment, providing the following results: water salinity trend evolution at each injector well; water salinity trend evolution at each producer well; injection water breakthrough timing at the producer wells.
water salinity trend evolution at each injector well;
water salinity trend evolution at each producer well;
injection water breakthrough timing at the producer wells.
Moreover, it gave the opportunity to assess the injection strategy efficiency and to quantify the impact of changing salinity on water viscosity and on the field recovery.
In conclusion, the innovative methodology applied in the Area-1 IAM (Integrated Asset Model) permits to predict the salinity of injected water and to foresee salinity evolution of produced water generating several valuable information, providing a flexible tool that allows to investigate simultaneously several uncertainties related to the project and to evaluate promptly solutions and mitigation.
Moreover, when the reservoirs will be on production, the numerical models integrated with the developed script will reproduce the historical salinity data allowing to identify preferential flow path established by fluids virtually acting as a reservoir tracer technology.
Finding niches that provide a competitive edge over larger operators has enabled Talos Energy to leapfrog into a powerful position with Mexico’s first offshore wildcat discovery. A major offshore discovery led by Talos Energy is the first successful wildcat well drilled by a private company in Mexico in almost 80 years and a milestone for the country’s recently enacted energy reform.
Asia Pacific Santos discovered gas with the Corvus-2 well in the Carnarvon Basin, offshore Western Australia. The well, located in permit WA-45-R, in which Santos has a 100% interest, reached a total depth of 3998 m. It intersected a gross interval of 638 m, one of the largest columns discovered across the North West Shelf. Wireline logging to date has confirmed 245 m of net hydrocarbon pay across the target reservoirs. Total SA and partners ExxonMobil and Oil Search have signed a gas agreement with the government of Papua New Guinea that defines the fiscal framework for the Papua LNG project in the country's Eastern Highlands. The plan involves construction of three 2.7-mtpa LNG trains on the existing PNG-LNG plant site at Caution Bay just west of Port Moresby. Total has 31.1% interest, ExxonMobil has 28.3% interest, and Oil Search has 17.7%.
The deal covers the installation of a pair of rigid flowlines for the shallow heavy oil field, Pemex’s largest discovery to date. Work is expected to be completed early next year. The engineering and construction company announced that it had achieved a pair of milestones for BP’s Angelin and Pemex’s Abkatun-A2 platforms, both of which are scheduled for delivery within the next two fiscal quarters.
Calgary-based Pembina Pipeline Corp. has entered into agreements to acquire Kinder Morgan Canada Ltd. and the US portion of the Cochin Pipeline system from Kinder Morgan for a total purchase price of approximately $4.35 billion. The subsea operations company said its most recent campaign is the first fully unmanned offshore pipeline inspection completed “over the horizon,” surveying up to 100 km from the shore. Trafigura confirmed that it had begun shipments from the Permian to Corpus Christi via the pipeline, which has a 670,000-B/D capacity. Operator Plains All American announced last week that it had completed work on the pipeline. In a filing with the US FERC, Plains All American Pipeline said it would begin charging shippers an additional fee on its Cactus II pipeline to offset higher construction costs incurred in the wake of US steel tariffs.
Freeport marks the sixth major LNG export facility to start operations in the US. Commercial deliveries are expected to begin in September, with Osaka Gas and JERA taking half of the Train 1’s offtake capacity. The introduction of feed gas into Train 1 of the natural gas liquefaction and LNG export facility marks the transition from construction to startup. Upon startup, Freeport LNG will become the first world-scale electric LNG liquefaction plant in North America. Completion comes despite two cyclones disrupting the project area during installation, McDermott said.
The size of the individual seismic surveys has increased over the last decade, along with the generation of megamerge and even larger, what some operators call “gigamerge” surveys. The number of useful attribute volumes has also increased, such that interpreters may need to integrate terabytes of data. During the past several years, various machine learning methods including unsupervised, supervised and deep learning have been developed to better cope with such large amounts of information. In this study we apply several unsupervised machine learning methods to a seismic data volume from the Barents Sea, on which we had previously interpreted shallow high-amplitude anomalies using traditional interactive interpretation workflows. Specifically, we apply k-means, principal component analysis, self-organizing mapping and generative topographic mapping to a suite of attributes and compare them to previously generated P-impedance, porosity and Vclay displays, and find that self-organized mapping and the generative topographic mapping provide additional information of interpretation interest.
In the late 1980s, seismic facies analysis was carried out on 2D seismic data by visually examining the seismic waveforms that can be characterized by their amplitude, frequency and phase expression. Such information would be posted on maps and contoured to generate facies maps. As seismic data volumes increased in size with the adoption of 3D seismic data in the early 1990s, interpreters found that 3D seismic attributes highlighted patterns that facilitated the human recognition of geologic features on time and horizon slices, thereby both accelerating and further quantifying the interpretation. More recently, computer-assisted seismic facies classification techniques have evolved. Such methods or workflows examine seismic data or their derived geometric, spectral, or geomechanical attributes and assign each voxel to one of a finite number of classes, each of which is assumed to represent seismic facies. Such seismic facies may or may not represent geologic facies or petrophysical rock types. In this workflow, well log data, completion data, or production data are then used to determine if a given seismic facies is unique and should be lumped (or “clustered”) with other similar facies determined from attributes with similar attribute expression.
Africa (Sub-Sahara) Kosmos Energy has made a significant deepwater gas discovery off Senegal. The Guembeul-1 well in the northern part of the St. Louis Offshore Profond license in 8,858 ft of water encountered 331 net ft of gas pay in two excellent-quality reservoirs, the company reported. The results demonstrate reservoir continuity and static pressure communication with the Tortue-1 well, which suggests a single gas accumulation. The mean gross resource estimate for the Greater Tortue complex has risen to 17 Tcf from 14 Tcf as a result of the Guembeul discovery, the company said. Kosmos, the operator, has a 60% interest in the well. Timis (30%) and Petrosen (10%) hold the remaining interest. In Salah Gas has started production from its Southern fields in Algeria.