Africa (Sub-Sahara) Sonangol's deepwater Orca-1 well encountered oil in the presalt layer of Block 20/11 in the Cuanza basin offshore Angola. The well reached a measured depth of 12,703 ft. Initial well tests saw flow rates of 16.3 MMcm/D of gas and 3,700 BOPD. Cobalt International Energy (40%) is the operator, with partners Sonangol Research and Production (30%) and BP Exploration Angola (30%). Asia Pacific Premier Oil's Kuda Laut-1 well in Indonesia's Tuna production sharing contract has encountered 183 net ft of oil-bearing reservoir and 327 net ft of gas-bearing reservoir. Following evaluation operations, the well will be sidetracked to drill the Singa Laut prospect in an adjacent fault block. Premier is the operator (65%), with partner Mitsui Oil Exploration Company (35%).
The oil and gas industry invests significant money and other resources in projects with highly uncertain outcomes. We drill complex wells and build gas plants, refineries, platforms, and pipelines where costly problems can occur and where associated revenues might be disappointing. We may lose our investment; we may make a handsome profit. We are in a risky business. Assessing the outcomes, assigning probabilities of occurrence and associated values, is how we analyze and prepare to manage risk.
Essam, Wael (BP) | Scarborough, Christopher (BP) | Wilson, Nick (BP) | Shimi, Ahmed (BP) | Santos, Helio (Safekick) | Hannam, Jason (Safekick) | Catak, Erdem (Safekick) | Lancaster, Jay (Seadrill) | Gooding, Neil (Seadrill) | Baan, Robert (Seadrill)
BP had long recognized the benefits of MPD, having been using it for years to deliver very challenging wells in Egypt, Trinidad and the North Sea; and it was time to bring these benefits to its GoM operations. Once the company team identified a portfolio of suitable candidate wells to allow the economics of the application to be advantageous, they partnered with Seadrill to provide the MPD service integrated into the West Capricorn drilling rig. This approach builds on synergies within the drilling contractor organization to achieve long term economic, competency, and risk management benefits, resulting from integrating this drilling method on the rig, and eliminating interfaces with 3rd party providers. The paper will discuss how the company and the drilling contractor teams, together with equipment suppliers and training providers, managed the project from initial system design, to installation and commissioning, to the successful delivery of the first well using MPD, at top quartile performance. It will discuss the process for optimizing the design and testing it from a reliability and process safety perspectives; engaging the regulatory authority and the classification society; integrating MPD in the well planning process and developing operational procedures for use on the rig; and delivering a training program for the wider team covering the technical and the human factors aspects to ensure a successful delivery.
In the northeastern desert of Utah, a new type of oil sands extraction technology has been born. The company behind it claims the process is the most cost-effective and environmentally sound way to develop oil sands. "Nothing goes out onto the ground, nothing goes up into the air, and there is no water involved," said Gerald Bailey, the chief executive officer of MCW Energy Group. "We finish up with 99.9% clean sand that you can just lay out on the ground." Bailey said the efficiency of the technology is backed up by permits issued by the US Environmental Protection Agency allowing MCW to reintroduce the sands to the source area.
Acceptable data quality for formation evaluation forms the foundation for understanding the reservoir characterization, Petrophysical properties and pay zones identification. The data quality becomes more challenging in the thin-bed reservoirs (also known as'Low resistivity pay' often abbreviated as LowReP), which poses a significant trial for field development to quantify the volumes in place and producibility. "Greater Dolphin Area" (GDA) located within the East Coast Marine Area (ECMA) off Trinidad consists of several fields out of which this paper will be focusing on the Dolphin and Starfish fields. The reservoirs consist of a series of stacked Pleistocene sands with good porosity and permeability within a three-way-dip closure against a large growth fault. Thin-beds have been observed, verified and documented throughout this area via core acquisition, core photographs and PLT analysis. As aforementioned, due to the low resistivity pay reservoirs characteristics in Starfish and Dolphin fields, these often been overlooked or interpreted to be water-bearing, when surveyed with conventional resistivity logging tools. These thinly bedded pay section hydrocarbon volumes have significantly been underestimated between 50% - 200% deposits. Several thin-bed methodologies have been employed for the Petrophysical modelling to support the field development planning using conventional legacy approach and Shell "Low Resistivity Pay" (LowReP) based tool response modelling and inversion methods workflow to resolve the issues associated with the presence of thin beds. This paper investigates the different methods of resolving the thin bed analysis problem and demonstrates the uncertainty of the results from each methodology on the Petrophysical properties and hydrocarbon volumes estimation.
Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) has been utilized in Trinidad and Tobago for over 50 years. Most projects so far have focused on thermal as well as gas injection along with the more conventional waterfloods. In spite of that, recovery factors are still relatively low and the country's oil production has been declining for some time. Surprisingly, given the progress in chemical EOR and in particular polymer flooding in the last 10 years, these processes have not been used in Trinidad and we suggest that it might be time to consider their application. Similarly, foam has been used extensively worldwide to improve performances of gas and steam injection but has not yet been used in the country.
The situation of EOR in Trinidad will be first reviewed along with the characteristics of the main reservoirs. Then the potential for the application of chemical-based EOR methods such as polymer, surfactant and foams will be studied by comparing the characteristics of Trinidad's reservoirs to others worldwide which have seen the applications of chemical-based EOR methods.
This review and screening suggests that there is no technical barrier to the application of all these EOR methods in Trinidad. Most reservoirs produce heavy oil and are heavily faulted, but polymer injection has been widely applied in heavy oil reservoirs as well as in faulted reservoirs before, and suitable examples will be provided in the paper. Similarly, these characteristics do not present any specific difficulty for foam-enhanced gas or steam injection. The main issue appears to be the identification of suitable water sources for the projects.
This paper proposes a new look at EOR opportunities in Trinidad using conventional methods which have not been used in the country. This will help reservoir engineers who are considering such applications in the country and hopefully will eventually result in an increase in the oil production in the future.
More than four billion barrels of heavy oil remain in the oil fields of Trinidad. If these oil fields are exploited, the country's total oil production can increase significantly. However, heavy oil is difficult to produce, due to its high viscosity, and only a small fraction is recovered after primary recovery. Therefore, it is necessary to implement enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques to increase heavy oil production. Two of the most commonly used EOR techniques are cyclic steam stimulation (CSS) and cyclic CO2 stimulation (CCO2S). These processes have a long history of successful heavy oil recovery in Trinidad and Tobago when applied individually. However, very little research was found regarding the combination of both processes which was the basis for this study
A test reservoir, located in the southern basin on land Trinidad was selected and a computer simulation model was built, using the Computer Modelling Group (CMG) software to determine the production analysis. Sand, structure and pay maps were obtained and digitized, using the Didger Five software and then uploaded into the CMG software. Reservoir properties and production data were also uploaded. Wells were then added to the model at the exact location indicated on the structure map. Simulations were conducted using varying injection rates, slug size and soak times for CSS, CCO2S and combined CSS and CCO2S to determine optimal EOR performance and production.
The combination of CSS and CCO2S show an increase in recovery by 8.6% and to be profitable at oil prices higher than USD 14/bbl. It is also best used as a first step for other enhanced oil recovery techniques to further increase recovery. In addition, the results show that 8 out of 17 wells were more responsive to CSS and CCO2S when applied individually than when combined.
Despite Trinidad and Tobago having the highest biodiversity in the Caribbean and being an oil and gas producer for over 100 years, there is no approved systematic process to adequately address the protection, treatment and remediation of wildlife in the event of oil spills, apart from what is given in Section 5 of the 2013 National Oil Spill Contingency Plan (NOSCP).
BP Group requirements in 2012 stipulated the need for a documented process to manage oiled wildlife. Using international guidelines, a detailed review was conducted in 2013 to determine what was needed to establish an oiled wildlife preparedness and response programme in BP Trinidad and Tobago LLC (BPTT). This involved engagement of various external stakeholders (regulators, researchers, veterinary services, environmental non-governmental organizations [ENGOs], and international wildlife response organizations) to determine what had been put in place and what could have been established to manage national disasters involving wildlife.
Local animal rehabilitation centres were found to have limited capability to respond to large incidents. BPTT sponsored an Oiled Wildlife Preparedness Response Train the Trainer programme in 2013 to increase the number of volunteers available for oiled wildlife management by enabling the ENGOs to share the techniques with others. Formal volunteer training via ENGOs began in 2017. BPTT also established its own Level 1 Oiled Wildlife Response Kit comprising tools and equipment required to handle, treat and remediate wildlife impacted by oil. While developing its Oiled Wildlife Management Plan, BPTT was asked by the Ministry of Energy and Energy Industries (MEEI) to lead the initiative to further develop Section 5 of the NOSCP in collaboration with the stakeholders mentioned above and the other oil and gas operators. In 2016, the draft national Oiled Wildlife Management Plan was segment-tested during a BPTT major drill that involved a simulated uncontrolled offshore release of hydrocarbon which impacted emerging Green Turtle hatchlings on Manzanilla Beach. The learnings from this drill are being incorporated in the Trinidad and Tobago draft Oiled Wildlife Management Plan which will be added to the next update of the NOSCP.
BPTT remains committed to working with the stakeholders to obtain approval to formally implement this system. In the meanwhile, engagement with the different groups, ENGO training of additional volunteers, drills, data collection from actual incidents continues as capability in oiled wildlife management in Trinidad and Tobago is strengthened.