This section outlines methods for determination of the stress magnitudes and the pore pressure. Overburden pressure, or Sv, is almost always equal to the weight of overlying fluids and rock. Thus, it can be calculated by integrating the density of the materials overlying the depth of interest (see Figure 1). Figure 1--(a) Density logs for a subsea well beneath 1,000 ft of water, extrapolated to the mud line using an exponential curve. Density within the water column is 1.04 gm/cm.
Wu, Qian (The University of Texas at Austin) | Nair, Sriramya (The University of Texas at Austin) | Oort, Eric van (The University of Texas at Austin) | Guzik, Artur (Neubrex Co., Ltd) | Kishida, Kinzo (Neubrex Co., Ltd)
Subsurface geomechanical changes can cause severe damage to oil and gas well casing strings and cement barriers, which can compromise the zonal isolation of either an abandoned or active well, in the latter case jeopardizing its productive life. A novel system was developed based on laboratory experiments to simultaneously monitor casing deformation and cement integrity using fiber optic distributed temperature and strain sensing (DTSS). The proposed system consists of a hybrid-Brillouin-Rayleigh-based DTSS technique used in combination with two dedicated fiber optic cables. The first is a standard telecommunication fiber, which is used to measure strain changes due to casing deformation. The second cable, coated with a hydrocarbon-sensitive polymer, detects an additional strain caused by the presence of hydrocarbons due to a loss of zonal isolation. The combined system can also detect temperature changes caused by formation fluid invasion from a lower depth into the cement annulus. Since the two cables will be installed side-by-side on the outside of a casing string within the cement sheath, the system can also be used for monitoring the quality of a cementing job. The proposed system provides continuous, real-time and in-situ monitoring of casing deformation and cement integrity to prevent substantial impact on production, or to detect plug failure and hydrocarbon leakage for abandoned and decommissioned wells. It can thereby provide detailed information (i.e. location, type, and event severity) to plan and execute remedial operations, if necessary.
Some of the first high-pressure/high-temperature (HP/HT) development wells from Elgin and Franklin have been exposed to sustained casing pressures in their "A" annulus, threatening the integrity of the wells. The sustained pressure in the annulus was attributed to ingress through the production casing of fluids from the overburden chalk formations of the Late Cretaceous. The mechanism triggering the ingress into the "A" annulus was uncertain until access to the production casing was achieved. A recent campaign to abandon development wells of Elgin and Franklin that had sustained "A"-annulus pressure brings new evidence on the mechanism causing the ingress. Temperature surveys have been acquired in the production tubing to identify the fluid-entry points in the production casing. Multifinger calipers have been run in the production casing, revealing several shear-deformation features. These deformations are localized along various interfaces, and are attributed to the stress reorganization associated with the strong reservoir depletion. A detailed analysis of the surveys shows that fluid ingress is occurring at distorted casing connections, if located close to weak interfaces along which shear slip occurs. The shear deformation is suspected to cause a loss of the sealing capacity of the connection, leading to gas ingress into the "A" annulus. This conclusion emphasizes the need to consider any potential for localized shear deformations in designing casing for HP/HT wells.
Models for steam or hot-water injection into a fractured diatomite or shale reservoir are developed from existing analytic models of energy transport and countercurrent imbibition.
Radial convective heat flow through a horizontal fracture system is modeled with conductive heat flow into the low-permeability matrix. The flow geometry approximates hot-fluid injection into a five-spot pattern. Recovery mechanisms accounted for in the models include capillary imbibition and thermal expansion. Temperature dependence of viscosity and interfacial tension (IFT) are included in the imbibition estimate. Laboratory data are needed to quantify the magnitude of the imbibition mechanism, which is usually the primary contributor to oil recovery. Reservoir properties representative of either the Belridge Diatomite or the Antelope Shale, two giant fractured oil reservoirs, are used for the model forecasts. Currently, however, only temperature-dependent imbibition data for diatomite reservoirs are available.
The steamflood model has been partially validated against a large-scale project in the Belridge Diatomite. By use of public-domain information, a reasonable comparison was obtained between the model and the field project during a 4-year injection period. Comparison with conventional thermal simulation was also performed, and it indicated reasonable agreement with the steamflood analytical model.
The models have been used to determine the key factors determining the success of thermal recovery in fractured, low-permeability reservoirs. Steam injection is shown to be superior to hot-water injection in heating the matrix. Key factors enhancing recovery include reduced fracture spacing, increased matrix permeability, and increased injection temperature. Model results indicate that steamflood recoveries of more than 40% of the original oil in place (OOIP) may be achieved by injection in diatomite containing light oil. Application to diatomites containing heavy oil also shows good performance. Successful application in diatomite reservoirs is forecast to be possible in the current low oil-price environment. Economic application in fractured shales, assuming similar imbibition behavior as in diatomites, would require a higher oil price because of the higher well costs and lower oil content relative to diatomite projects.
Because of the significant volumes of remaining oil in place (OIP) in both the diatomite and shale reservoirs, the application of thermal enhanced oil recovery (EOR) to these resources represents the logical next step in steamflood development.
Many casing failure incidents have been reported in oil and gas fields around the world. These casing failure events can occur not only within reservoirs but also in surrounding formations. Engineers must evaluate risks of casing failure when drilling and completing wells especially in highly compacting reservoirs. However, one of the challenges encountered during the evaluation of casing failure risks is that field-scale stress changes and displacements as a result of drilling wells and producing hydrocarbon from reservoirs must be properly taken into account for casing stability analysis. The objective of this study is to develop an efficient integration method for large-scale reservoir compaction and small-scale casing stability analyses for the evaluation of casing deformation and failure.
The numerical model developed in this work is based on 3D elasto-plastic finite element method (FEM). Reservoir compaction and subsidence are analyzed using a large-scale FEM model considering details of geological settings while casing stability is analyzed separately by a small-scale FEM model. The two FEM models are integrated by interpolating displacements calculated by the large-scale model and assigning resultant displacements for boundaries of the small-scale casing stability analysis model. The validation of the proposed integration method is also presented in the paper.
Our study results indicate that the integration method presented in this paper significantly improves computational efficiencies on an order of 5 times faster than the conventional simulation method that requires a large number of finite elements for reservoir, surrounding formations, cement, and casing. Also it is demonstrated that the integrated model can be applied to inclined wells completed in highly heterogeneous formations at sufficient accuracy. The field case study also indicates that the risk of casing deformation highly depends on its inclination and the position relative to the compacting formation.
The small and large scale coupling method developed in this work helps engineers evaluate casing deformation and failure in various locations in reservoir and surrounding formations in an efficient manner and also develop safe and efficient drilling and completion programs to reduce risk of casing mechanical problems.
Chevron operates refineries in the San Francisco Bay area and Los Angeles basin, and oil production facilities in the San Joaquin Valley, that could be negatively impacted by a large earthquake. An Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) System can provide seconds to tens of seconds warning prior to damaging ground shaking from a major earthquake in or near California. Other countries (e.g., Japan, Taiwan, and Mexico) have instituted early warning systems that have reduced damage to people and property. With planning, training, and/or automation, seconds to tens of seconds or warning can reduce damage to people and property. EEW is a risk management tool to reduce overall risk, balancing seismic risk against other personal and process safety risks. Chevron envisions a tiered response: a lower tier of low cost, low risk responses for lower magnitude seismic events and a high tier of more extensive response for higher magnitude events. Examples of low tier responses include: issue warning and instructions to move to a secure location, secure and evacuate elevators, laboratories, and heavy equipment such as cranes. Higher tier responses would include all low tier response plus actions (to be determined, based on overall risk) such as depressurization or emergency shutdown of major equipment or processes. Chevron is also interested in using EEW’s soon to be released predicted ground motion map to prioritize response/resources to most heavily impacted areas.
Presentation Date: Wednesday, October 17, 2018
Start Time: 8:30:00 AM
Location: 211A (Anaheim Convention Center)
Presentation Type: Oral
In its latest sale since financial restructuring in February, Linn Energy sold its Williston Basin properties to an undisclosed buyer for $285 million. The company entered the Bakken in early 2011 with the purchase of the assets from Concho Resources for $196 million. This deal brings Linn's year-to-date total sales agreements to more than $1.5 billion. The company's restructuring, the intent of which was to transition it from an upstream limited partnership to a growth-oriented E&P company, reduced its debt by more than $5 billion to a total of $1 billion. With the sale of the Jonah, South Belridge, and Salt Creek assets, the company eliminated all remaining outstanding debt.
This paper presents a new workflow for the simulation of in-situ combustion (ISC) dynamics. In the proposed method, data from kinetic cell experiments, depicting the combustion chemistry, are tabulated and graphed based on the isoconversional principle. The tables hold the reaction rates used to predict the production and consumption of chemical species during in-situ combustion.
This new method of representing kinetics without the Arrhenius method is applied on one synthetic and two real kinetic cell experiments. In each case, the new method reasonably captures the reaction pathways taken by the reacting species as the combustive process occurs. A data-density sensitivity study on the tabulated rates for the real case shows that only four experiments are required to capture adequately the kinetics of the combustion process. The results are, however, found to be sensitive to the size of the time step taken. The method predicts critical changes in the reaction rates as the experiment is exposed to different temperature conditions, thereby capturing the speed of the combustion front, temperature profile, and fluid compositions of a simulated combustion tube experiment.
The direct use of the data ensures flexibility of the reaction rates with time and temperature. In addition, the non-Arrhenius kinetics technique eliminates the need for a descriptive reaction scheme that is typically computationally demanding, and instead focuses on the overall changes in the carbon oxides, oil, water and heat occurring at any time. Significantly, less tuning of parameters is required to match laboratory experiments because laboratory observations are easier to enforce.
Saini, Dayanand (California State University, Bakersfield) | Wright, Jacob (California State University, Bakersfield) | Mantas, Megan (California State University, Bakersfield) | Gomes, Charles (California State University, Bakersfield)
A critical analysis of the key geological characteristics, completion techniques, and production behaviors of the Monterey Shale wells and their comparisons with analogous major US shale plays—namely, the Bakken and the Eagle Ford—may provide insights that could eventually help the petroleum industry unlock its full potential. The present study reports on such efforts.
The Monterey Shale is very young and geologically heterogeneous compared with the Eagle Ford and the Bakken. Oil viscosity in the Monterey Shale is significantly higher, and one can also notice that Monterey oil production has declined over the years. The Monterey Shale has a field-dependent completion strategy (pattern spacing and fracturing stage), while a horizontal, uncemented wellbore completion is common in the Bakken and the Eagle Ford. In the Monterey, nonhydraulically fractured zones of horizontal and hydraulically fractured wells appear to be making approximately equal contributions to the well’s cumulative production. The ongoing water-disposal operations in overlying injection zones, up to a certain extent, have affected the productivity of both types (long and short production histories) of wells. The geology also appears to have an effect on the production behaviors of horizontal and hydraulically fractured wells.
A preliminary economic analysis suggests that exploitation of the Monterey Shale is still a profitable venture. However, for sustainable development in a current price regime of USD 50/bbl of crude oil, it is necessary that production costs be reduced further. Also, compared with the Bakken and the Eagle Ford, the Monterey sits in regions of extremely high water stress (i.e., frequent occurrences of drought or drought-like conditions). However, oilfield-produced water associated with current steamflooding-based oil- and gas-production operations in the region as a base fluid suggests that it can potentially meet most of the water demand for future fracturing jobs. Also, combined use of a centralized water-management system; a less-costly, more energy-efficient, and high-capacity solar-powered desalination system; and a final sludge-management and/or residual-brine-disposal mechanism might assist the petroleum industry in managing flowback and produced waters while keeping water-handling costs low.
A combination of new enhanced-oil-recovery (EOR) methods for releasing the remaining oil from both nonfractured and fractured zones of horizontal wells and the use of oilfield-produced and recycled water for completing hydraulically fractured horizontal wells might prove to be a significant change for the future exploitation of California’s Monterey Shale resource, which is subject to the toughest hydraulic-fracturing regulations in the nation and is in a region of extremely high water stress.
Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) has been utilized in Trinidad and Tobago for over 50 years. Most projects so far have focused on thermal as well as gas injection along with the more conventional waterfloods. In spite of that, recovery factors are still relatively low and the country's oil production has been declining for some time. Surprisingly, given the progress in chemical EOR and in particular polymer flooding in the last 10 years, these processes have not been used in Trinidad and we suggest that it might be time to consider their application. Similarly, foam has been used extensively worldwide to improve performances of gas and steam injection but has not yet been used in the country.
The situation of EOR in Trinidad will be first reviewed along with the characteristics of the main reservoirs. Then the potential for the application of chemical-based EOR methods such as polymer, surfactant and foams will be studied by comparing the characteristics of Trinidad's reservoirs to others worldwide which have seen the applications of chemical-based EOR methods.
This review and screening suggests that there is no technical barrier to the application of all these EOR methods in Trinidad. Most reservoirs produce heavy oil and are heavily faulted, but polymer injection has been widely applied in heavy oil reservoirs as well as in faulted reservoirs before, and suitable examples will be provided in the paper. Similarly, these characteristics do not present any specific difficulty for foam-enhanced gas or steam injection. The main issue appears to be the identification of suitable water sources for the projects.
This paper proposes a new look at EOR opportunities in Trinidad using conventional methods which have not been used in the country. This will help reservoir engineers who are considering such applications in the country and hopefully will eventually result in an increase in the oil production in the future.