Using planar fracture models to match treatment pressure and improve understanding of the fracture geometry generation is not a new concept. Knowledge gained from this exercise has historically been used to improve engineered fracture completions and production, and maximize net present value (NPV); however, at some point during the progression from vertical to horizontal wellbores, many within the industry have forgotten about the learnings that can still be gained from current fracture models. Engineered completions have been largely replaced by spreadsheet efficiencies relevant to operations rather than production in too many cases. Some images of unconventional well stimulation treatments portray fractures growing in every direction, forming patterns that resemble shattered windshields, and have often excluded the known physics related to rock geomechanics, reservoir properties, and geology. Excuses to dismiss modeling are numerous and are gaining the reasoning of conformists.
Unconventional resource plays might or might not contain large numbers of natural fractures; but, current fracture models can still be used to gain insight into the fracture geometries being generated. While the development of complex fracture models continues to evolve, the industry can still gain insight to fracture geometry and resulting production using current planar fracture modeling. Caveats to this process are that it requires: Valid measured data to establish model constraints. The engineer to understand the basic physics of how fractures are generated and when (and when not) to twist the "knobs" in the model. The engineer to understand which "knobs" should be used based on real diagnostics information. The actual single well production to be an integral part of the process.
Valid measured data to establish model constraints.
The engineer to understand the basic physics of how fractures are generated and when (and when not) to twist the "knobs" in the model.
The engineer to understand which "knobs" should be used based on real diagnostics information.
The actual single well production to be an integral part of the process.
This paper demonstrates the results of honoring data measurements from a multitude of potential sources, including downhole microseismic data, downhole deformation tiltmeters, offset pressure monitoring, DTS, DAS, diagnostic fracture injection test (DFIT) analysis, injection as well as production data with bottomhole pressure measurements, etc., and the resulting observations and conclusions. Several industry examples are discussed to help frame the vast amount of information possible to help engineers do a better job of including more diagnostics into routine operations to provide additional insight and ultimately result in improved models and completion designs.
This paper is not intended to merely demonstrate the results of the work but to spark an interest in bringing more intense engineering back to fracture stimulation modeling for horizontal completions.
PDC’s president and CEO describes the company’s management strategy for its hydraulic fracturing operations in the Wattenberg Field and the Delaware Basin. Baker Hughes is developing a drill bit capable of auto-adjusting its depth-of-cut feature to handle dynamic drilling conditions. Drilling the Severnaya Truba field in Aktobe, Kazakhstan, has been costly and time consuming.
The effectiveness of delivering information about a new energy project to community stakeholders varies based on the method used; how a message is framed can affect individual opinions. Models were developed for these wells for future water-production prediction and a spatial analysis was also conducted. This article explores the outlook for the global market and gives insight into technology trends and the regions that hold the biggest opportunities for water treatment.
Three papers selected from 2018 SPE ATCE look at the challenges and approaches to the treatment of increasing volumes of produced water. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present in crude oil can be released to the atmosphere from storage tanks, waste waters, and equipment leaks. A pilot-scale sequential biotrickling/biofiltration unit was designed and tested for removal of VOCs from a wastewater sump. Models were developed for these wells for future water-production prediction and a spatial analysis was also conducted.
Underbalanced coiled tubing drilling has continually advanced since the first trials in the 1990s but remains a relatively niche drilling technology. With UBCTD projects set to start in many countries next year, this technology may be seeing a turning point. Considering most of the rigs deal with human-machine interface systems, the role of human factors is at the heart of any successful operation. Eye-tracking technology can be useful in real-time operation centers where ocular movement data can improve the professionals’ performance. For 60% of Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, by cultivated land area, an acute challenge is access to water.
Mitigation of stress shadowing could significantly enhance the impact of hydraulic fracturing treatments, increasing stimulated reservoir volume and leading to higher production of hydrocarbons. More than a decade ago, perforation cluster spacing was designed up to 700 ft in Barnett and Bakken plays. Today, the spacing is as close as 15 ft apart in Eagle Ford and DJ Basin and operators are optimizing fracture spacing for achieving higher initial production rates.
This article gives a succinct overview of artificial intelligence, its emerging opportunities, prospects, and challenges, and concludes with recommendations to accelerate the admission of AI into workflows. The term digital oil field has become a buzzword in the oil and gas industry these days, with the mention of it bringing up pictures of computers, flashy screens, and programming to mind. In reality, the concept goes beyond these. Mitigation of stress shadowing could significantly enhance the impact of hydraulic fracturing treatments, increasing stimulated reservoir volume and leading to higher production of hydrocarbons. Unconventional oil and gas have come to dominate the exploration and development scene in Western Canada since 2005, much as they have in the US.
The Powder River Basin has emerged over the past year as the latest source of oil production growth for the Lower 48. Companies ranging from a reborn Samson Resources to US onshore mainstays Devon, Chesapeake, and EOG are now betting on the basin to become a long-term core asset. Colorado’s industry lacks the size, variety, and Wild West characteristics of Texas, but that is precisely why the Centennial State’s oil production is surging to record levels. This paper describes a comprehensive field study of eight horizontal wells deployed in the stacked Niobrara and Codell reservoirs in the Wattenberg Field (Denver-Julesburg Basin).
After a long cooling off period, this dry-gas shale play is once again red hot. The state-owned firm is looking within its home country, around Southeast Asia, and to the Americas—including shale—in an effort to maintain its forecast average yearly production of 1.7 million BOE/D over the next 5 years. Encana CEO Doug Suttles assures that shale executives are acutely aware of the parent-child well challenge, and he doesn’t think it’s “a big threat” to the sector. The US majors plan to produce around 1 million BOE/D each from the basin, which has become a primary focus of their upstream operations. This industry is one often considered reactive and overly tradition-bound.