Induced seismicity caused by underground fluid injection occurs because of pore pressure changes that lead to stress changes in the reservoir and the surrounding formations. Despite that noticeable seismic events from fluid injection is very rare, proper assessment of possible seismic events is important. The objective of this study is to develop numerical models that simulate stress changes, fault slips, and ground floor movements induced by underground fluids injection.
The numerical analysis process presented in this work consists of three steps. First, stress changes around the reservoir due to fluid injection are analyzed using a FEM-BEM (Finite Element Method - Boundary Element Method) coupled model. Secondly, the stability of faults located near the reservoir is evaluated using the displacement discontinuity method. Thirdly, elastic waves caused by the fault slip is simulated using a FEM model where seismic response on the surface are calculated. A field case study is also presented to demonstrate the applicability of the numerical model developed in this work.
The numerical analysis results indicate that stress concentration occurs around a boundary between the basement and sandstone beneath the reservoir. This affects the stability of existing faults in this region. As a result, when the fault is slipped, seismicity may be triggered. It is assumed that the slip is caused by stress changes in the faulted region as well as a pore pressure change in the fault, which is caused by volumetric strain changes of the fluid in the fault. A field case study based on wastewater injection in the Southwestern region of the United States where injection induced seismicity events have been recently reported, is also performed in this work. In this case study, the variation of rock strength is considered one of important factors in induced seismicity events.
The novelty of our model is the ability to quantitatively assess the risk of induced seismicity due to wastewater injection, which can be also applied to other applications such as CCS and underground gas storages. Moreover, conducting risk assessment by these numerical models can improve safety of underground fluid injection operations.
I am encouraged that we, as an industy, continue to refine and tweak our practices to solve zonal-isolation and cementing challenges in every well environment in which we work. As cementing techniques are improved, so, too, are the cement-evaluation methods and work flows. This paper demonstrates a new way to create gas-tight seals during well abandonment, overcoming the limitations of traditional methods and reducing the operator’s liability and potential environmental impact after decommissioning has been completed. This paper discusses shale creep and other shale-deformation mechanisms and how an understanding of these can be used to activate shale that has not contacted the casing yet to form a well barrier. Well RXY is located in Cairn’s Ravva offshore field in the Krishna-Godavari Basin in India.
Learn more about training courses being offered. Learn more about training courses being offered. This course covers the fundamental principles concerning how hydraulic fracturing treatments can be used to stimulate oil and gas wells. It includes discussions on how to select wells for stimulation, what controls fracture propagation, fracture width, etc., how to develop data sets, and how to calculate fracture dimensions. The course also covers information concerning fracturing fluids, propping agents, and how to design and pump successful fracturing treatments. Learn more about training courses being offered. Current and future SPE Section and Student Chapter leaders are invited to engage and share. Every attendee leaves energised with a full list of ideas and a support network of fellow leaders. Those sections and student chapters actively participating in this workshop have consistently been recognized with awards as the best in SPE. SPE Cares is a global volunteering drive aimed at promoting, supporting and participating in community services at the SPE section and student chapter’s level. On its official launch this year at ATCE Dubai, SPE Cares will conduct a “Give a Ghaf” Tree Planting Programme to help preserve Ghaf’s cultural and ecological heritage. The Ghaf tree is an indigenous species, specific to UAE, Oman and Saudi Arabia. It is a drought tolerant, evergreen tree that can survive a harsh desert environment. The initiative not only aims to hold events/activities at ATCE, but also recognise community service that SPE members are already conducting in their respective student chapters and professional sections. The KEY Club, open daily, is an exclusive lounge for key SPE members. The lounge is open to those with 25 years or more of continuous membership, Century Club members, current and former SPE Board officers and directors, Honorary and Distinguished Members, as well as this year’s SPE International Award Winners and Distinguished Lecturers. DSATS (SPE’s Drilling Systems Automation Technical Section) will hold a half-day symposium featuring keynote presentations on urban automation. This symposium will explore technologies being used in developing smart cities through the automation of their infrastructure, transportation systems, energy distribution, water systems, street lighting, refuse collection, etc. These efforts rely on many of the same tools needed for drilling systems automation yielding increased efficiencies, lower maintenance and reduced emissions. Their knowledge and experience can guide the path being travelled by the oilfield drilling industry.
A useful first step in the characterization of any new coal area is to compare its characteristics with those of successful CBM projects. Table 2 summarizes the characteristics of several successful projects in the US and includes parameters related to reservoir properties, gas production, gas resources, and economics. The table shows that successful projects have many similarities, including high permeabilities and high gas resource concentration; however, the table does not include aspects such as government incentives or high-value markets, which could elevate a marginal project to commercial status.
This article discusses the geology, depositional setting, and hydrogeology of promising CBM areas, along with a discussion of data sources that can help in evaluation of prospects. Foreland basins are flexural troughs that form in front of rising mountain belts. These basins, which include the Black Warrior and San Juan basins of the U.S., have provided more than 90% of the world's coal gas production to date. Cratonic basins such as the Williston basin, which straddles the U.S./Canadian border, are simple structural depressions that favor the deposition of widespread, continuous coal seams. Intermontane basins, which are common in the Appalachian Mountains of the eastern U.S., form within mountain belts and often are structurally complex, resulting in a more heterogeneous coal distribution.
ABSTRACT: Injection-induced seismicity (IIS) depends on pore pressure, in-situ stress state, and fault orientation; generally occurs in basement rock that contains fractures and faults; and moves away from the injection well as a nonlinear diffusion process. Therefore, to numerically model IIS a code should incorporate flow and geomechanics, the presence of fractures and faults, and the capability for hydraulic diffusivity to evolve with effective stress and failure history. In this work, we introduce and verify a modeling framework that allows hydraulic diffusivity to evolve as fractures open and close. Details and challenges in code development are discussed, including how the Bandis model for normal fracture deformation can be used to calculate hydraulic diffusivity as a function of effective normal stress. The discrete fracture network and matrix (DFNM) model is implemented in PFLOTRAN such that hydraulic diffusivity has different constitutive relationships for fracture and matrix grid cells. This model is applied to understand the recent IIS near Greeley, Colorado, and its results are compared to: (a) a traditional DFNM model where hydraulic diffusivity cannot evolve and (b) an equivalent porous media (EPM) model where the effect of the fractures are averaged over a large region of rock. The new DFNM model predicts critical pressure will propagate farther from an injection well. This modeling framework shows promise for applications where fracture and matrix flow are important and hydraulic diffusivity is a function of pressure, stress, and/or shear failure history.
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In December 2016, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) published the findings of their multiyear study entitled, "Hydraulic Fracturing for Oil and Gas: Impacts from the Hydraulic Fracturing Water Cycle on Drinking Water Resources in the United States." EPA's final report (with contributing studies) totals over a thousand pages, and sparked controversy during the assessment, after the release of their draft 2015 report and the final document. This paper provides a summary of the EPA study effort and processes, and highlights key finding and limitations of the work.
In 2010 Congress authorized the U.S. EPA to study the potential impact of hydraulic fracturing (HF) on water quality. EPA's office of Research and Development (ORD) drafted a study approach that included (1) defining research questions and identifying data gaps, (2) conducting a process for stakeholder input and research prioritization, (3) developing a detailed study design that would lead to external peer-review, and (4) implementation of the planned research. This study approach was reviewed by a committee formulated under the EPA's Scientific Advisory Board (SAB), and one author of this paper served on the first SAB review panel. A separate SAB committee was empaneled later to review the results of the research and draft conclusions. All three authors of this paper were appointed to the second SAB panel.
Initially, industry considered the Congressional request to be a focused assessment related to the actual process of HF on drinking water. It later became clear that the interpretation by the EPA of the Congressional request was a broader evaluation on the "life cycle" of water during the drilling and completion activities for oil and gas development. The final focused study approach was based on a HF hydraulic fracturing water cycle beginning with water acquisition, chemical mixing, and injection of the treatment. After HF (the actual hydraulic fracturing treatment, also known as "completion"), the fracture water cycle includes produced water handling, HF water disposal and reuse, and identification and hazard evaluation of chemicals across the hydraulic fracturing water cycle. Each of the stages in the HF process are treated separately in the study, and includes fundamental explanations, scientific research, academic (literature) review, and stakeholder input.
This paper provides a succinct summary of the EPA HF study. The summary is important for industry, government and academia as the final Assessment report is currently being cited as a basis for policy and regulatory development worldwide.
Commercial development of coalbed methane (CBM) in China has lasted for a decade. However, in 2015 annual CBM production in China was less than 5 Bcm and lagged far behind those in US (35 Bcm) and Australia (18 Bcm). In this paper, we review the published literature to determine the engineering challenges and opportunities of CBM production in China. Our review has identified seven major engineering challenges to CBM development in China. They are low cleat permeability and underpressured formation pressure of high-rank coals, ductility of coal seams, suboptimal fracturing fluids, formation damage during drilling, borehole instability in horizontal wells, frequent pump failures during production, and inadequate produced water treatment methods.
Each of these challenges provides an opportunity for improvement. We propose a refocus on low-rank coals which have higher permeability. Other opportunities include development of better hydraulic fracturing fluids, non-formation damaging drilling fluids, use of geomechanics to understand borehole instability, optimization of the artificial lift methods and more robust and environmentally friendly produced water treatment methods.
McNamara, Daniel (United States Geological Survey) | Petersen, Mark (United States Geological Survey) | Benz, Harley (United States Geological Survey) | Williams, Robert (United States Geological Survey)
Short-term seismic hazard in parts of the central and eastern U.S. (CEUS) has decreased from 2016 to 2017 after significantly increasing in the previous 5 years (Figure 1, 2 and 3). In Texas, 1.6 million people are facing much lower likelihood of damaging shaking than in 2016. However, for north-central Oklahoma and southern Kansas, the 2017 forecast shows that about 3 million people live with continuing increased potential for damaging shaking from induced seismicity that is similar to the 2016 forecast. The chance of damage in the next year from induced earthquakes in parts of Oklahoma is still similar to that of natural earthquakes in high-hazard areas of California.
Here we review the 2016 and 2017 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) one-year seismic hazard forecasts in the CEUS due to natural and human-induced earthquakes (
Presentation Date: Tuesday, September 26, 2017
Start Time: 9:20 AM
Presentation Type: ORAL