By International Petroleum Technology Conference (IPTC) Monday, 25 March 0900-1600 hours Instructors: Olivier Dubrule and Lukas Mosser, Imperial College London Deep Learning (DL) is already bringing game-changing applications to the petroleum industry, and this is certainly the beginning of an enduring trend. Many petroleum engineers and geoscientists are interested to know more about DL but are not sure where to start. This one-day course aims to provide this introduction. The first half of the course presents the formalism of Logistic Regression, Neural Networks and Convolutional Neural Networks and some of their applications. Much of the standard terminology used in DL applications is also presented. In the afternoon, the online environment associated with DL is discussed, from Python libraries to software repositories, including useful websites and big datasets. The last part of the course is spent discussing the most promising subsurface applications of DL.
During the last quarter of 2014, WTI crude oil price dropped precipitously from an average US$75 to a startling US$42. Production targets were difficult to achieve as the economic margin for well interventions narrowed. The revised objective was increasing oil production while minimizing investment cost and ensuring profitability of the well interventions. Identification of quick-win initiatives which required minimal investment to reactivate wells or increase their production included rig less interventions such as coiled tubing clean out campaigns and coiled tubing gas lift. Candidates which required heavy workovers were assessed through the RAPID process: R(eview) A(ssess) P(lan) I(mplement) D(iscuss). This process, though a part of our daily operations, was not aggressively implemented as oil prices further declined but was applied to the well review process to allow Petrotrin to be better prepared for more favourable oil prices. A revision to the economic feasibility of all well interventions was also re-evaluated to more lenient parameters. The estimated production from the quick-win initiatives was 500 bopd (unrisked) with a risked gain of (375bopd), whilst the estimated production increase from the application of the RAPID technique is expected the realize 1800 bopd (unrisked) with a risked production of 1080bopd. Well testing though significant, remained a challenge for proper evaluation of both the quick-wins and heavy workovers. In its absence Tubing Head Pressure (THP) and Line Pressure (LP) were monitored along with total transfer volumes at metering points to ensure expected gains were as was modelled. The economics of these projects were evaluated ensuring a Discounted Cash Flow Rate of Return (DCFROR) greater than 25%. Wells which did not meet the economic hurdle rate after the application of the RAPID technique were omitted pending more favourable oil prices, for cost optimization, Petrotrin proposes to implement the RAPID technique by project basis for operations such as fishing and well control for high pressure (HP) wells. Upon its approval, it would be included in the company's Standard Operating Procedure.
In this paper we explore the West Africa-South America analogue proven by the Jubilee and Zaedyus discoveries in Ghana and French Guiana, respectively. Instead of the Turonian turbidite fan reservoirs, we consider younger unproven deep water channel systems in Foz do Amazonas Basin in Brazil which could be analogous to the Campanian pay found in the Teak field in Ghana. We present a geological overview of the basin together with acquisition details and imaging results of a regional 3D CSEM survey in the area. Using CSEM as a fluid indicator, we calculate the Net Rock Volume (NRV) from a channel-shaped EM anomaly and with conservative parameterization we obtain a P10/P90 ratio of 14.7 and an average NRV of ~23000hm3.
In September 2011 Tullow Oil announced a significant oil discovery in the Zaedyus prospect in French Guiana that established the Turonian aged Jubilee play from Ghana, West Africa. Following the Zaedyus discovery, a 2012-2013 drilling program of 4 exploration wells targeting nearby turbidites resulted in disappointing commercial success. We will discuss the potential of the younger channel play in the lower Tertiary and upper Cretaceous in Foz do Amazonas basin rather than the Turonian turbidite fans. Continuing the West Africa/South America analogue, the channel systems could resemble the Campanian pay of the Teak-1 exploration well in Ghana (Kosmos Energy, 2011). First, we will give an overview of the geology providing potential reservoir and trapping mechanisms. Second, we will use results of a regional multi-client 3D CSEM survey as a fluid indicator. Acquired in 2013, the survey is bordering French Guiana towards west within 15km of the last exploration well of the drilling program, GM-ES-5, and within 50km of the Zaedyus discovery. Third, we will use the method introduced by Baltar and Roth (2013) to estimate the Net Rock Volume in a sub-region of the CSEM coverage.
The present day shelf margin region of the Foz do Amazonas Basin has undergone significant modification from mass wasting events and debris flows. The basin provides analogous examples for deep water depositional systems in the underlying Tertiary and Cretaceous sections. Based on seismic observations, the shelf is shaped by the orientation of shallow basement that is interpreted as continental crust from potential field data. The basement extends outward from the coastline for approximately 130 kilometers before rapidly dropping off in a series of complex fault systems that are related to older rift stage graben systems.
Following the Zaedyus discovery, a 2012-2013 drilling program of 4 exploration wells targeting nearby turbidites resulted in disappointing commercial success. We will discuss the potential of the younger channel play in the lower Tertiary and upper Cretaceous in Foz do Amazonas basin rather than the Turonian turbidite fans. Continuing the West Africa/South America analogue, the channel systems could resemble the Campanian pay of the Teak-1 exploration well in Ghana (Kosmos Energy, 2011). First, we will give an overview of the geology providing potential reservoir and trapping mechanisms. Second, we will use results of a regional multi-client 3D CSEM survey as a fluid indicator.
Everybody has seen flares burning in industrial plants such as petroleum refineries, chemical plants, natural gas processing plants as well as at oil or gas production sites having oil wells, gas wells, offshore oil and gas rigs and landfills. The flare has always been a symbol for stable production, but nowadays a flameless flare may be a symbol for stable and clean production. The size and brightness of the resulting flame in not related to the reliability and well operability of the plant, but also depends upon the flammable component compositions and the flow rates. Burning flammable components which are vented from processing units can be happened during normal operations and process upsets conditions. The primary function of flares is providing safe conditions to protect the facility, employees and the surrounding environment. On the other hand, flaring these components also creates trade-off emissions, such as nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur oxides (SOx), greenhouse gases (CO, CO2) and unburned hydrocarbons. Damages to the surrounding caused by the destruction of these valuable and expensive raw materials are unavoidable because of safety and continuity of the process. As these products, destroyed through burning in the stack, have already been treated in the refining process, their value is that of an enriched product. Recovering and reuse of these waste components before they are combusted by the flare is preferable because of not venting undesired component to the environment and also providing new sources of fuel or feed stock. For creating the sense about flaring it has been estimated that, in 2006 the global gas flaring were 168 billion cubic meters (BCM) which represents 25% of the natural gas consumption of the USA. If it were to reach market, this quantity of gas (at a nominal value of $5.62 per 1000 cubic feet ) would be worth $29.8 billion USD . It is also estimated that the gas flared annually is equivalent to 30% of the European Union’s gas consumption, or 75% of Russia’s gas exports. The gas flared yearly also represents more than the combined gas consumption of Central and South America. It should be noted that the annual 35 BCM (or 1.2 trillion cubic feet) of gas flared in Africa alone is equivalent to half of that continent’s power consumption . It is also claimed that 5% of the world’s natural gas production is wasted by burning or “flaring” unused gas each year .
Offshore soil sampling, conducted for the purpose of site characterization, is often plagued with sample disturbance issues and other difficulties related to the sampling process. Field tests, such as the piezocone penetration test (PCPT), are not subject to such difficulties and are routinely used to complement the sampling program. However, the conventional practice is to directly evaluate the in-situ undrained shear strength using an assumed or fitted bearing factor, Nkt. The hybrid cavity-expansion and critical state theory establishes the relationship between OCR and piezocone measurements. Once the stress history is known, the various modes of soil strength may be estimated through the use of appropriate S values. This paper presents interpretations of piezocone data at 12 separate locations in the Jubilee field development in the Gulf of Guinea. Separate and independent profiles of stress history and shear strength of the deep water clays found at this site are compared with the results of a detailed and extensive laboratory testing program. The experimentally determined SHANSEP parameter m, was found to be representative of the soil, but the strength ratio from DSS testing was judged to be too high. S values used in the interpretations were based on those reported in the literature for similar soils. Internal friction angles of 30° to 31° and an IR of 100 adequately predicted OCR with depth. The profiles derived from the PCPT data compared well with the results of CRS and DSS tests consolidated to in-situ pressures. The use of piezocone data in this manner allows the development of a site-specific family of undrained shear strength profiles that are continuous throughout the depth of testing. This profile can complement data from the soil sampling program which inherently has information gaps arising from the limitations of sampling and testing or as a result of uncertainty caused by sample disturbance. The interpretations are relatively quick and easy to perform and can increase the degree of confidence in the soil modeling parameters selected.
His 30-year career at Petrobras was spent in various engineering and management positions in exploration and production: coordination of the Petrobras Technological Program on Ultradeepwater Exploitation Systems-- PROCAP 3000; drilling manager for Petrobras America; and well operation manager for Petrobras International. Saliés holds a BS degree in mechanical engineering from the Military Institute of Engineering, Brazil; an MS degree in petroleum engineering from the Federal University of Ouro Petro, Brazil; and a PhD degree in petroleum engineering from the University of Tulsa. He has authored or coauthored several papers on drilling and subsea technology. Saliés served several terms on the SPE Board of Directors for the Brazil Section and serves on the JPT Editorial Committee. One year later, I had the pleasure of seeing an announcement for the semisubmersible hull destined for the Jack/St.
The development of unconventional resources, China's increasing importance on the global energy map, and turning E&P challenges into opportunities were among the topics discussed at the International Petroleum Technology Conference (IPTC) held 26-28 March in Beijing.
John Donnelly, JPT Editor The oil and gas industry, like many industries, awards its best and brightest companies, technologies, and individuals with annual or occasional awards, calling attention to excellence and innovation. Among the most prestigious are awards handed out at the International Petroleum Technology Conference (IPTC), held in late March in Beijing, and the upcoming Offshore Technology Conference (OTC) in May. The honor highlights projects that have demonstrated distinction throughout the entire value chain, and are at least USD 500 million equivalent in value. Past winners have included both international and national oil companies. Taken into account are projects that exemplify strong teamwork, solid geoscience knowledge, reservoir and production engineering expertise, outstanding facilities engineering practices, and a strong commitment to health, safety, and the environment and advocate innovative and people-oriented human resource policies and community programs.
The Jubilee field was discovered in June 2007 in the Gulf of Guinea, approximately 60 km offshore western Ghana. It is a very large light/sweet oil accumulation in 1200-1500 m of water. The Jubilee partners, along with the Ghana National Petroleum Corporation (GNPC), decided in January 2008 to develop the field using a phased approach after just one appraisal well.