In 1993, Richard D’Souza (Fellow), the principal author and his co-authors presented a landmark paper reviewing the Semisubmersible Floating Production System (FPS) technology at the SNAME centennial meeting in New York. (D’Souza et al., 1993a). The paper captured the twenty year progression of the FPS beginning with the Argyll field in the UK Sector of the North Sea in 80 meters of water that was converted from a semisubmersible Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit (MODU) and began producing in 1975. During this period about twenty five FPSs were installed, primarily in the North Sea and Brazil. Most were converted from semisubmersible MODUs. The deepest was in 625 m, the largest displacing 45,000 mt and the maximum oil rate was 70,000 bopd.
Over forty FPSs have been installed since then, most of which are purpose built platforms. The technology has expanded to a maximum water depth of 2400 m, displacements exceeding 150,000 mt and production rates of 300,000 boepd. The inherent versatility and flexibility of the FPS to adapt to a wide range of water depths, payloads, metocean conditions and future expansion, has resulted in the FPS superseding the Tension Leg Platform (TLP) and the Spar platform as the most widely used floating production platform after the Floating Production Storage and Offloading (FPSO) platform. Its field development applications range from marginal reservoirs to giant deepwater oil and gas fields across the globe.
This paper, authored by Richard D’Souza with a new team of co-authors, is a sequel to the 1993 paper and is intended as a historical and technical archive of the evolution of the FPS technology in the ensuing twenty five years. It highlights the importance of the Naval Architect and Ocean Engineer whose role has evolved from a peripheral to a major player in the design, fabrication and installation of the FPS. This paper has two objectives. One is to inform Operators and Contractors engaged in developing deepwater fields by providing a historical overview of lessons learned and technology evolution of the FPS. The other is to inspire graduate and post graduate Naval Architects and Ocean Engineers to consider a career in the offshore industry where they will have an impactful role in shaping the future of deepwater floating production platforms.
Eustes III, Alfred W. (Colorado School of Mines) | McKenna, Kirtland I. (Colorado School of Mines) | Zody, Zach J. (Colorado School of Mines) | Healy, Carl (Colorado School of Mines) | Lang, Camden (XTO) | Joshi, Deep (Colorado School of Mines) | Yow, Stephen (Chevron) | McGowen, Kyle (Shell)
Drilling education must evolve continuously to keep up with the changes in the drilling industry. Part of that evolution includes the addition of data analytics in drilling operations. In addition, having a "hands on" experience of actual drilling operations is an important part of the drilling engineering educational process. At the Colorado School of Mines, both goals are achieved using a new coring rig equipped with a high-frequency data acquisition system.
A Sandvik DE 130 Diamond Coring Rig was acquired by the school through a grant from Apache Corporation that has proven to be an excellent analog to full-scale petroleum rigs. It has all drilling subsystems such as rotary, hoisting, power, and circulation. A data acquisition system has been added that tracks accelerations as well as various drilling operational parameters. During experiments, each student has an opportunity to operate the driller's controls and experience the complexities associated with drilling operations including the occasional error. The retrieved core helps the student correlate the formation with drilling data.
The inclusion of the drilling experience in the curriculum has benefited the students in several aspects. This experience has helped students visualize drilling operations and understand complexities and challenges associated with drilling. During the drilling operations, if any problems arise, the students have a chance to troubleshoot those problems in real-time and apply their theoretical knowledge. Operational safety and stop work authority are also a focus and demonstrated by students. This is likely to be the first experience most students have with high-frequency drilling data analysis. Monitoring, collecting, and handling real high-volume data gives a first glimpse into the complexities of data analytics. Noisy realtime data and errors are real and observed by the students. They also learn to handle and analyze high- frequency drilling data identifying normal trends and abnormalities. This coring rig has enhanced the drilling engineering education and data analysis skills of our students.
This work outlines a novel teaching methodology that combines the practical understanding of drilling and the application of data analytics. Getting out to the field and actually drilling rock has enhanced our drilling curriculum to align it with the latest industry practice and to educate future drilling engineers.
The Journal of Petroleum Technology is the leading magazine for petroleum professionals in the global upstream oil and gas industry. Published by the Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE), every month JPT delivers editorial content covering the expansive breadth and depth of the upstream sector - from cutting-edge technology developments to practical applications - through feature articles, technical papers, interviews, guest columns, and news stories. The Oil & Gas Year (TOGY) delivers annual, country specific business intelligence reports on key oil and gas markets worldwide. Since it was established in 2005, TOGY has become a recognised actor in the global energy industry by working hand in hand with ministries, industry institutions, national and international oil companies. Our books are widely used as critical business tools by energy investors to get to know the key actors, projects and underlying opportunities in emerging energy markets and to build long-lasting collaborations.
Geophysical Reservoir Monitoring GRM systems such 4D seismic are increasingly used in the oil and gas industry because they provide unique and useful information on fluid movement within the reservoir. This information is relevant for many reservoir management decisions; including new well placement, well intervention, and reservoir model updating.
Unfortunately, it has been difficult to estimate the value creation of any data acquisition scheme due to the fact that a multidisciplinary approach is required to model the value that future measurements will imply in future decisions. This assessment requires a common decision making simulation frame work that can integrate the input from geo-modelers, geophysicist and reservoir engineers.
This work presents an example of how a Close Loop Reservoir Management (CLRM) simplification can be used as a framework for simulating NPV changes due to assimilation of production and saturations in a simple toy model. It combines state-of-the-art data assimilation and uncertainty modeling methods with a robust optimization genetic algorithm to calculate NPV improvements due to model update and its relationship with the NPV obtained from the synthetic reservoir.
In this context a simple synthetic model is presented. It recreates a segment of green field under a strong aquifer influence with two discovery wells. The reservoir development requires the selection of 4 well locations at fixed drilling times. The development strategy selection is obtained with the use of a genetic algorithm within the CLRM framework. Subsequently two cases are presented: one of assimilating only production after the first two wells have been drilled, just before deciding the locations of the last two wells; and a second case, in which production and saturation are assimilated at the same time. The saturation map assimilated is assumed to be output of a 4D seismic acquisition. The model update imposes the need of optimally relocate the last two wells which results in a NPV change.
The results show how the obtained NPVs is incremented by the relocation of the last two wells in both cases. A bigger increment is obtained when both, production and saturation are assimilated. In addition, the ensemble improved its forecast capability the most, when saturation assimilation is included. Nevertheless, the ensemble expected NPV decreases after assimilation from the value obtained from the first development strategy optimization; this indicates an optimistic early NPV valuation due to the initial ensemble distributions spread.
The study presents an asset simulation framework that could be used to evaluate data acquisition investments through the systematic modeling of reservoir uncertainties with in a decision oriented focus. This could include the inclusion of additional uncertain model parameters, the insertion of water injector and well conversions, the assimilation of saturations at different intervals, the change on the quality of the saturation maps assimilated, in addition to sensitivity studies of other economic constrains.
The DMCC Free Zone, one of the world’s leading hubs for commodities, trade and enterprise successfully attracts key participants throughout the entire value chain of a wide range of commodity sectors along with a range of businesses from shipping to trade, recruitment, to IT and advertising, through to restaurants, retail stores, gyms, nurseries, luxury brands, universities and more. Industry participants and Free Zone member companies enjoy access to market infrastructure and physical facilities such as gold and diamond vaults, trading platforms like the Dubai Gold & Commodities Exchange, Dubai Diamond Exchange, the Dubai Pearl Exchange and DMCC Tradeflow, the dedicated online platform for registering possession and ownership of commodities stored in UAE-based storage facilities; the DMCC Tea Centre and a range of commodities backed financial investment tools. Oil Review Middle East is the region's leading oil and gas magazine. Edited in both English and Arabic, Oil Review offers authoritative coverage of upstream and downstream developments in the Middle East and North Africa. Each issue contains a potent mix of industry & technology news, business intelligence & analysis, country reports, sector surveys, technical features and event previews.
Among the many buzzy, digitally related words or terms bandied about the industry over the past year or two, “digital twin” serves as something of a confluence of them all. Populating many industry conference agendas are high-level presentations and discussions with descriptors such as digitization, digitalization, digital transformation, and the digital disruption, which involve big data, data analytics, advanced analytics, artificial intelligence (AI), machine learning, automation, the Internet of Things (IoT), and the ever-important, abundantly abstract cloud. Some of those terms are used rather broadly and interchangeably, leading many to wonder: What exactly are we talking about here? The definition of a digital twin is similarly less finite, but it is rather easy to conceptualize at a basic level. The technology links the physical world with the digital world, providing a digital model of a physical asset or process. It serves as a real-time data hub for its owner, allowing for reference to designed or expected performance and continuous offsite monitoring.
Lv, Mingsheng (Al Yasat Petroleum Operations Company Ltd) | Al Suwaidi, Saeed K. (Al Yasat Petroleum Operations Company Ltd) | Ji, Yingzhang (Al Yasat Petroleum Operations Company Ltd) | Swain, Ashis Shashanka Sekhar (Al Yasat Petroleum Operations Company Ltd) | Al Shehhi, Maryam (Al Yasat Petroleum Operations Company Ltd) | Luo, Beiwei (Al Yasat Petroleum Operations Company Ltd) | Mao, Demin (Al Yasat Petroleum Operations Company Ltd) | Jia, Minqiang (Al Yasat Petroleum Operations Company Ltd) | Zi, Douhong (Al Yasat Petroleum Operations Company Ltd) | Zhu, Jin (Al Yasat Petroleum Operations Company Ltd) | Ji, Yu (Al Yasat Petroleum Operations Company Ltd)
Western Abu Dhabi locates in the west of Rub Al Khali Basin, which is an intra-shelf basin during the Late Cretaceous. The Shilaif source, Mishrif reservoir and Tuwayil seal forms one of the Upper Cretaceous important petroleum systems in the western Abu Dhabi Onshore. However, less commercial discoveries have been achieved within Mishrif Formation during the past 60 years since the large scale structures were not developed in western Abu Dhabi and the stratigraphic traps have not been attracted attention.
This study aims to investigate the exploration potential of both Mishrif structural and stratigraphic traps. It provided detailed study on Shilaif source rock, Mishrif shoal/reef reservoir and Tuwayil seal capability. Oil-source rock correlation, reservoir predication and basin modeling have been carried out for building Mishrif hydrocarbon accumulation model by integration of samplings, wire loggings and 2D&3D seismic data. Shilaif Formation is composed of laminated, organic-rich, bioclastic and argillaceous lime-mudstones and its generated hydrocarbon migrated trending to high structures. Three progradational reefs/shoals in Mishrif Formation were deposited along the platform margin, which are characterized by high porosity and permeability. Tuwayil Formation consists of 10-15ft shale interbedding with tight sandstone, acting as the cap rock of Mishrif reservoirs.
Mishrif hydrocarbon accumulation mechanism has been summarized as a model of structural background controls on hydrocarbon migration trend and shoal/reef controls on hydrocarbon accumulation. It is consequently concluded that Mishrif reefs/shoals overlapping with structural background are the favorable exploration prospects, and oil charging is controlled by heterogeneity inside a reef/shoal, the higher porosity and permeability, the higher oil saturation. Two wells have been proposed based on the hydrocarbon accumulation model, and discovered a stratigraphic reservoir with high testing production. This discovery encourages a new idea for stratigraphic traps exploration, as well as implicates the great exploration potential in western Abu Dhabi.
Pang, Mengqiang (Hohai University) | Ba, Jing (Hohai University) | Yu, Cun (Hohai University) | Zhou, Jian (Hohai University) | Wang, Enjiang (Hohai University) | Jiang, Ren (China Petroleum Exploration and Development Research Institute, Langfang Branch)
The attenuation (Q−1) of medium is a parameter more sensitive to pore fluid than seismic velocities for gas-bearing reservoirs, thus accurate estimation of seismic attenuation is very meaningful for exploration of natural gas reservoirs. In this paper, we used the quality factor to carry out the seismic identification of carbonate reservoirs and estimate the Q values point by point of the target layer by using S transform and improved frequency shift method. In addition, the two-dimensional Q profiles of some survey lines and the three-dimensional Q section of the whole area were extracted. The results show that the Q value is low in the gas-bearing area with high-porosity, and the attenuation is anomalously high. And in the non-gas-bearing area with low-porosity, the Q value is higher, with no attenuation anomaly. The analysis method of attenuation effectively reflects the absorption characteristics and gas-bearing differences of the stratum, and can be effectively used in reservoir prediction.
Presentation Date: Monday, October 15, 2018
Start Time: 1:50:00 PM
Location: Poster Station 5
Presentation Type: Poster
A power plant has operated for approximately 25 years at Brady Natural Lab where both artificial and natural recharge keep the reservoir pressurized (Cardiff et al., 2018; Folsom et al., 2018, Feigl et al., 2018). A vibrating source injected the 3 modes (P, transverse S, and longitudinal S) at 191 source locations during four stages of the 15-day field experiment. The four stages describe different production and injection regimes performed vary depending on if the fiber is installed behind casing or in tubing (Raterman et al., 2017). Specifically, this paper focuses on understanding the vertical DAS (DASV) data and the extent to which DASV can be used for imaging of the steeply dipping faults. The DASV have potential to be more sensitive to the faults than the horizontal DAS and surface geophones, which given the acquisition geometry are prone to spatial aliasing (Jreij et al., 2018). However, DASV are only recorded in Well 56-1 location, and unfortunately, the fiber is not securely coupled to the casing but is hanging freely (Feigl et al., 2017). However, the frictional coupling allowed for reflection signals to be detected, similar to what is seen and described in Munn et al. (2017) and Lindsey et al. (2017).
Dai, Jianfang (CNOOC(China National Offshore Oil Corporation) Ltd Tianjin Branch, Tianjin, P.R.China) | Wang, Mingchun (CNOOC(China National Offshore Oil Corporation) Ltd Tianjin Branch, Tianjin, P.R.China) | Jiang, Liqun (CNOOC(China National Offshore Oil Corporation) Ltd Tianjin Branch, Tianjin, P.R.China) | Qin, Dehai (CNOOC(China National Offshore Oil Corporation) Ltd Tianjin Branch, Tianjin, P.R.China)
The characterization of volcanic rocks, especially the identification of the bottom interface is the key to reservoir exploration. Based on the veriety of the volcanic rock's response in petrophysical analysis and the difficulty to identify volcanic rock in the profile, we use pre-stack AVO attribute analysis and post-stack amplitudevariations-with frequency (AVF) inversion on the study of volcanic rock type and logging response characteristics to avoid the limitation of single seismic data and single attribute. By using this method, the top and bottom interfaces of volcanic rocks are clear and it provides a strong support for reservoir research and well deployment. Introduction With the continuous deepening of geological understanding, the volcanic rock, once known as the'restricted zone', has become a hot spot for oil exploration, but due to the diversity of volcanic lithofacies, it is difficult to be recognized. In recent years, the use of seismic response characteristics of volcanic rocks, wave impedance inversion, and seismic attribute prediction methods have become important means of describing volcanic rocks.