The objective of this work is to characterize the fault system and its impact on Mishrif reservoir capacity in the West Quran oil field. Determination and modelling of these faults are crucial to evaluate and understanding fluid flow of both oil and water injection in terms of distribution and the movement. In addition to define the structure away from the well control and understanding the evolution of West Qurna arch over geologic time.
In order to achieve the aim of the work and the structural analysis, a step wise approach was undertaken. Primarily, intensive seismic interpretation and building of structure maps were carried out across the high resolution of 3D-seismic survey with focusing on the main producing Mishrif reservoir of the field. Also, seismic attributes volumes provided a good information about the distribution and geometry of faults in Mishrif reservoir. The next step, it constructs 3-D fault model which will be later merged into the developed 3D geological model. West Qurna/1 oil field situated within the Zubair Subzone, and it is structurally a part of large anticline towards the north. The observation of seismically derived faults near Mishrif reservoir indicated en-echelon faults which refer to strike-slip tectonics along with extensional faults. The statistic of Mishrif interval faulting indicates a big number faults striking north-south along western wedge of anticline. The seismic interpretation, in combination with seismic attributes volumes, deliver a valuable structural framework which in turns used to build a better geological model.
In this paper, the work demonstrates a better understanding for the perspectives on the seismic characterization of the structural framework in the Mishrif reservoir, and also for similar heterogeneous carbonate reservoirs. Further, this work will ultimately lead to improve reservoir management practises in terms of production performance and water flooding plan.
A key aspect of the project discussed in this paper is the use of minimal initial-production facilities to achieve significant early production from each of four preconstructed artificial islands. Many offshore decommissioning costs are higher than necessary because of decisions made during the initial engineering and construction for an oil or gas field. With a high demand for plug and abandonment (P&A) of subsea wells in the future on the Norwegian continental shelf, industry is challenged to find alternatives and rigless technologies that can make P&A operation more cost-effective and -efficient.
Visuray is using its unique X-ray technology to improve downhole imaging. BP has seen enormous payoff from a program to intervene in underperforming subsea wells in the Gulf of Mexico. A coiled-tubing selective perforating and activation system that transmits critical downhole data and measurements in real time is enabling well interventions that previously could not have been executed. This technical paper describes the planning and execution of a multiservice-vessel (MSV) -based hydraulic-intervention campaign in Chevron’s Tahiti field in the US Gulf of Mexico. Intervention and workover operations can significantly affect the structural integrity and fatigue life of subsea-wellhead systems.
After a long cooling off period, this dry-gas shale play is once again red hot. Downhole annulus pressure is required for any gas lift design. This paper presents several methods of determining annulus pressure at depth and helps determine which method is most appropriate for specific conditions. The agency updated its methodology and production volume estimates to factor increasing production from new, emerging plays as well as older plays that have rebounded thanks to drilling advancements. UK’s first horizontal shale well has yielded positive results after an initial flow test.
In the shale oil business, cash flow is a life or death issue. For smaller players, money from investors and lenders is getting harder to find. Keen on Anadarko for a while, Occidental Petroleum is ready to do battle with Chevron for the big independent. What Happened to the Private, Family-Owned Oil Company? When the oil and gas industry goes one way, family-owned Hunt Oil goes the other.
These studies examined the feasibility of repurposing these fields for offshore gas storage by using their reservoir voidage and existing pipeline facilities. The same tools that make it fun and easy for you to see a friend's updates online are also pretty good at tying together unconnected databases holding valuable well information. A recent spike in production has engendered a cautiously optimistic outlook for the UKCS, but will it do anything to stave off the overall decline of the mature basin? When a new horizontal well in Asia was incapable of unassisted flow, coiled tubing (CT) was selected for the perforation and stimulation intervention. Mechanical isolation was required to ensure that the stimulation fluids entered only the new zones.
This study presents a novel, integrated workflow to maximize recovery using PVT compositional modeling, history matching, and numerical reservoir simulation in a tight oil sand formation, the Second Bone Spring. Advancements in unconventional resource development have enabled the Delaware Basin to become highly significant. However, optimizing the development of each formation is still lacking in understanding. This study is one of multiple future studies over tight reservoirs in the Delaware Basin and exhibits a comprehensive approach. Properties that will be optimized are well spacing, reservoir parameters, and EOR feasibility.
To determine the behavior and optimize the development of each of these reservoirs, data from multiple sources was necessary. The data compiled consisted of reports from PVT analysis, completions design, petrophysical analysis, daily production and pressure, deviation surveys, structure and isopach maps, and well design. This data was then implemented into a 3D numerical reservoir simulator (CMG-GEM), first to confirm PVT output in a compositional simulation (CMG-WINPROP), then to simulate up to 20 years of production, and finally to use uncertainty analysis (CMG-CMOST) to optimize reservoir input parameters. Once a base case scenario was established, we then furthered our investigation of well spacing and EOR feasibility by setting up multiple different scenarios for each and running them for 20 years. EOR scenarios included 1-3 month huff-and-puff CO2, as well as low salinity water injection. Results are normalized per foot of completely lateral length and lab data is implemented in EOR simulations.
Our results confirm that reservoir parameters, once established after uncertainty analysis, have a large impact on both optimizing well spacing and EOR feasibility in the Second Bone Spring formation. With each well having very similar cluster spacing, proppant amount and type, and fracturing fluid and type, up to 250 feet of inter-well spacing is unaccounted for. Optimized models show that closer spacing of at least 150 feet can increase EUR estimates an average of 11.25%. An increase of 5-17% recovery is observed once a smaller spacing is implemented. EOR models showed that CO2 and low salinity water injection are viable candidates for the formation (7.25-9% increase for CO2, 6.25% for LSWI).
This integrated study refines our reservoir parameter estimates and helps identify potential to maximize recovery. It suggests that a tighter spacing is necessary to cover a larger portion of the reservoir, as well as showing that EOR is feasible. An improved understanding of the entire reservoir leads to better production and economic estimates.
Nandi, Anindya (Schlumberger) | Sarkar, Subhadeep (Schlumberger) | Chatterjee, Chandreyi (Schlumberger) | Das, Sourav (Schlumberger) | Pattanaik, Sambit (Schlumberger) | Majumder, Chandan (Schlumberger) | Haldia, Bhopal Kumar (Oil & Natural Gas Corporation Ltd.) | Chaturvedi, Praveen Chandra (Oil & Natural Gas Corporation Ltd.) | Srivastava, Siddharth (Oil & Natural Gas Corporation Ltd.) | Verma, Malay (Oil & Natural Gas Corporation Ltd.) | Sarkar, Sutanu (Oil & Natural Gas Corporation Ltd.)
Owing to the depleting reserves in the conventional reservoirs over the last few years, unconventional reservoirs have gained significant importance in the exploration of oil and gas. Basement rocks, though non-sedimentary in origin, is looked upto as one of the important unconventional reservoirs. Deccan volcanics in Kutch-Saurashtra is one such example from India. This study shows and validates a methodology of how acoustic log data can be integrated with borehole images to understand reservoir properties that governs flow. It has been noticed that presence of open fractures is not the single biggest driver contributing to production. Insitu stress plays a critical role in guiding fracture mobility. To understand and determine which fractures would contribute to flow, a geomechanical study of performing the fracture stability analysis has been carried out. This generates a Mohr circle plot that defines the Mohr-Colomb shear failure criteria using the stress and critical fracture angles. Combining these three-way approaches of acoustic, image log and geomechanics, a workflow has been established for this field to identify fractures and quantify the permeable zones. This workflow has been used for two nearby wells in this field and subsequent result emphasises the utility of this method to find out sweet spots of fluid flow in fractured basement.
This paper discusses the application of IIoT in various areas of oil and gas upstream. It elaborates on the drivers of IIoT, presents the advantages and benefits and describes the challenges faced as of today in the implementation. IIoT and cloud computing work hand in hand. IIoT generates huge amount of data and cloud computing provides a pathway to present this data is a useful way and travel to the end user. A detail evaluation of the investment in using this technology and its anticipated returns are demonstrated. IIoT is believed to be an emerging solution for oil and gas complexities. The main drivers behind this technology are data storage, data analytics, reliability improvement and materiality assessment and control. The application of IIoT in areas of artificial lift optimization, Supply chain in real time, cyclic steam stimulation and flow assurance is described. This technology provides real time solution for dynacards interpretation and analysis for Sucker rod pumps, operating point analysis for Electrical submersible pumps and predicted cumulative production for all artificial lift optimization; efficient planning and waste elimination for supply chain and logistics; real time steam quality and quantity check for CSS and a complete digital approach to reservoir management and flow assurance. The main benefits of this technology are reduced MTBF, high efficiency, improved HSE standards, Instantaneous control over production loss, collaborative decisions leading to fast turnaround, highly responsive supply chain and enhancing environmental footprint. This has helped substantially in real time management of wells by exception and alerts in form of intelligent alarms indicating any deviation in the expected behaviour. This has significantly brought down the non-productive time (NPT). However, this paradigm shift comes with a substantial cost. The technical challenges include the data security, protocol non-uniformity, possible data loss and limitations of redundant system.
Petrophysics is a pivotal discipline that bridges engineering and geosciences for reservoir characterization and development. New sensor technologies have enabled real-time streaming of large-volume, multi-scale, and high-dimensional petrophysical data into our databases. Petrophysical data types are extremely diverse, and include numeric curves, arrays, waveforms, images, maps, 3-D volumes, and texts. All data can be indexed with depth (continuous or discrete) or time. Petrophysical data exhibits all the "7V" characteristics of big data, i.e., volume, velocity, variety, variability, veracity, visualization, and value. This paper will give an overview of both theories and applications of machine learning methods as applicable to petrophysical big data analysis.
Recent publications indicate that petrophysical data-driven analytics (PDDA) has been emerging as an active sub-discipline of petrophysics. Field examples from the petrophysics literature will be used to illustrate the advantages of machine learning in the following technical areas: (1) Geological facies classification or petrophysical rock typing; (2) Seismic rock properties or rock physics modeling; (3) Petrophysical/geochemical/geomechanical properties prediction; (3) Fast physical modeling of logging tools; (4) Well and reservoir surveillance; (6) Automated data quality control; (7) Pseudo data generation; and (8) Logging or coring operation guidance.
The paper will also review the major challenges that need to be overcome before the potentially game-changing value of machine learning for petrophysics discipline can be realized. First, a robust theoretical foundation to support the application of machine leaning to petrophysical interpretation should be established; second, the utility of existing machine learning algorithms must be evaluated and tested in different petrophysical tasks with different data scenarios; third, procedures to control the quality of data used in machine leaning algorithms need to be implemented and the associated uncertainties need to be appropriately addressed. The paper will outlook the future opportunities of enabling advanced data analytics to solve challenging oilfield problems in the era of the 4th industrial revolution (IR4.0).