Because of the higher cost of scale management for subsea (SS) operations compared with platform or onshore fields, and because of the more limited opportunities for interventions, it is becoming increasingly important to obtain and use real production data from wells rather than estimated zone flow contribution from simple permeability (k) and height (h) models for scale-squeeze-treatment design.
In this paper I discuss how scale-squeeze treatments were designed (coreflood evaluation of inhibitor retention/release) and deployed for three SS heterogeneous production wells. A permeability model and a layer-height model were initially developed for each well using detailed geological log data, estimated water/oil-production rates, and the predicted water-ingress location within the wells. Two wells were each treated three times using bullhead scale-squeeze treatments, with effective scale control being reported over the designed lifetime. A production log was acquired before the fourth squeeze campaign of these two wells. This information was incorporated into the squeeze simulation to allow review of the ongoing third squeeze and enhance design accuracy for the upcoming fourth squeezes. A third well was treated twice before production-logging data became available, and the performance of treatments to this well is also assessed.
The production-logging-tool (PLT) data proved very important in changing the understanding of fluid placement and the water-ingress location during production, resulting in changes to the isotherm values used to achieve effective history match to the inhibitor returns (with PLT data incorporated in all three wells), and most significantly affecting the squeeze lifetimes. It was possible to significantly extend the treatment lifetime of two of the wells (cumulative produced water to minimum inhibitor concentration), while the treatment life of one well was greatly reduced because of the PLT-data-modified model predictions.
In this paper I outline the process of reservoir/near-wellbore modeling that is used for most initial squeeze-treatment service companies deployed in the North Sea. I will highlight in detail the value that PLT data can provide to improve the effectiveness of squeeze treatments in terms of understanding of fluid placement during squeeze deployment and water-ingress location within heterogenous production wells. The intention of this paper is to highlight the value that these types of data can provide to improve scale management (squeeze treatment and water shutoff) such that the value created more than offsets the cost of acquiring such information for SS production wells.
Improved field management for monitoring, estimating zone productivity/injectivity, and controlling wells with intelligent completions can broaden application of advanced well designs. We have developed a coupled Simulation-Surface Network modeling workflow to evaluate the potential benefit of intelligent injection profile control with a focus on reactive vs proactive control for Gulf of Mexico (GOM) Deepwater Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) schemes. The developed injection control solution can be consistently applied to gas, water injection, and gas followed by water injection, to evaluate relative impacts of intelligent injectors on each option. We did this by defining rules for both proactive and reactive injection ICV controls for a GOM Deepwater Wilcox multilayered reservoir. Proactive controls, based on reservoir zone characteristics, pore volume injected, and recoverable pore volume, are dependent on a static reservoir model realization. Proactive control results demonstrate a diminishing return as we begin to observe fluid breakthroughs that results in part from the inevitable uncertainty of the original static assessment so there should be a benefit in reassessing optimal pore volume injection based on reservoir model updates. Reactive control strategies based on measured production response is a challenge in terms of linking injection control events to production responses that are time-lagged and incomplete for understanding gas and water breakthrough. The integrated model captures the effects of topside facilities, risers, flowlines, pressure/temperature at manifolds and topside, seafloor booster pump performance, wellheads, and wellbore to reservoir interactions and ICV controls to provide a realistic evaluation of achievable development alternatives outcomes.
Inter-well communication in unconventional reservoirs has received huge attention due to its significant effects on well production. Though it has long been a known side effect of hydraulic fracturing, well interference has become more prominent and frequent as the industry moves to larger completion designs with closer well spacing and infill drilling. Fracturing of infill wells ("child" wells) directly places the older adjacent producing wells ("parent" wells) at risk of suffering premature change in production behavior. Some wells may never fully recover and, in worst cases, permanently stop producing after taking severe frac hits.
This paper presents an automatic data-driven workflow developed to identify inter-well interference events and their impact on EUR (estimated ultimate recovery) based on changes in the well productivity trend. The innovative approach of the workflow is the ability to automatically analyze interference using the complete production history for all wells in a field, using routinely collected data and without introducing human bias in the derivation of the results, instead applying a consistent criteria. The final result is a comprehensive collection of all well interference events occurred in a field, which may be used as a training set for statistical and machine learning based models aiming at predicting such events.
First, the automatic identification of anomalies in the well behavior was developed and criteria set to label the interference events. Next, probabilistic simulations are run to forecast multiple scenarios to quantify the impact of a well interference event reported in terms of change in cumulative oil production. Finally, every event is analyzed in the overall context of field operations, in an attempt to present possible causes which may explain the change of production behavior.
The Gulf of Mexico, and more precisely the Wilcox trend, has long been considered as challenging area for developing profitable hydrocarbon fields. In fact, the safe drilling of deep offshore wells needs to take into account the geological and geomechanical complexities, generated by the different sedimentological and tectonic events that accompanied the development of the Wilcox trend. In the case of Buckskin field, located in Keathley Canyon protraction (Figure 1), and in order to overcome those challenges, we developed a workflow that ranks all the parameters related to the geometry, the geology, the rock quality and the geomechanics characteristics of the reservoir. The core of the workflow is articulated around a probabilistic method that will assess the uncertainty of the productivity index, based on experimental design and Monte Carlo simulation. The proposed workflow allowed the optimization of the PI of the well thanks to a highly deviated reservoir section at a depth below 24,000', combined with an optimal fracking job.
This seminar will teach participants how to identify, evaluate, and quantify risk and uncertainty in everyday oil and gas economic situations. It reviews the development of pragmatic tools, methods, and understandings for professionals that are applicable to companies of all sizes. The seminar also briefly reviews statistics, the relationship between risk and return, and hedging and future markets. Strategic thinking and planning are key elements in an organisation’s journey to maximise value to shareholders, customers, and employees. Through this workshop, attendees will go through the different processes involved in strategic planning including the elements of organisational SWOT, business scenario and options development, elaboration of strategic options and communication to stakeholders.
Learn more about training courses being offered. Learn more about training courses being offered. This course covers the fundamental principles concerning how hydraulic fracturing treatments can be used to stimulate oil and gas wells. It includes discussions on how to select wells for stimulation, what controls fracture propagation, fracture width, etc., how to develop data sets, and how to calculate fracture dimensions. The course also covers information concerning fracturing fluids, propping agents, and how to design and pump successful fracturing treatments. Learn more about training courses being offered. Current and future SPE Section and Student Chapter leaders are invited to engage and share. Every attendee leaves energised with a full list of ideas and a support network of fellow leaders. Those sections and student chapters actively participating in this workshop have consistently been recognized with awards as the best in SPE. SPE Cares is a global volunteering drive aimed at promoting, supporting and participating in community services at the SPE section and student chapter’s level. On its official launch this year at ATCE Dubai, SPE Cares will conduct a “Give a Ghaf” Tree Planting Programme to help preserve Ghaf’s cultural and ecological heritage. The Ghaf tree is an indigenous species, specific to UAE, Oman and Saudi Arabia. It is a drought tolerant, evergreen tree that can survive a harsh desert environment. The initiative not only aims to hold events/activities at ATCE, but also recognise community service that SPE members are already conducting in their respective student chapters and professional sections. The KEY Club, open daily, is an exclusive lounge for key SPE members. The lounge is open to those with 25 years or more of continuous membership, Century Club members, current and former SPE Board officers and directors, Honorary and Distinguished Members, as well as this year’s SPE International Award Winners and Distinguished Lecturers. DSATS (SPE’s Drilling Systems Automation Technical Section) will hold a half-day symposium featuring keynote presentations on urban automation. This symposium will explore technologies being used in developing smart cities through the automation of their infrastructure, transportation systems, energy distribution, water systems, street lighting, refuse collection, etc. These efforts rely on many of the same tools needed for drilling systems automation yielding increased efficiencies, lower maintenance and reduced emissions. Their knowledge and experience can guide the path being travelled by the oilfield drilling industry.
In a $60 to $70 oil environment, the subsea market is poised to grow around 7% annually up to 2025. But a significant portion of this activity is at risk if the price of Brent crude falls to $50 per barrel. The subsea operations company said its most recent campaign is the first fully unmanned offshore pipeline inspection completed “over the horizon,” surveying up to 100 km from the shore. One of the largest industrial projects in the UK in recent years, Mariner marks Equinor’s first operated field on the UK Continental Shelf. It is expected to produce 70,000 BOPD at peak rates.
An SPE Forum held recently in The Hague, The Netherlands, brought together professionals from production and service companies, regulators, and stakeholders to discuss issues that are shaping the well plugging and abandonment sector. Pressure pumping equipment has been one of the most neglected areas of technological advancement. This has started to change as innovative developers push out new technologies that are slowly modernizing fracturing fleets, delivering major fuel savings, and creating other tangible efficiencies. To analyze the status of digital transformation strategies and the pace of implementation in the Middle East, an SPE Applied Technology Workshop brought together operating and service companies and consulting firms for a discussion. In its first 50 years, LNG has become the world’s fastest-growing gas supply source and is now part of an upheaval in the global energy market. Today, the sector stands at a crossroads, and the industry must adopt new thinking to address current and future needs of buyers, sellers, and consumers. A study by a real-time monitoring company showed that many coiled-tubing strings are retired with a lot of life left in them.
The entrepreneurial ecosystem and the oil and gas industry are not a perfect match, but the industry has made strides in recent years to attract the startups developing innovative technologies that could usher it into a new era. How are companies bridging the gap? The deal sees H2O Midstream increase its produced water gathering network to more than 435,000 B/D of disposal capacity and 190 total miles of pipeline. The Permian water midstream company will add more than 40,000 B/D of recycling capacity with the option to double that capacity over time. The transaction is planned to be structured as a spin-off of TechnipFMC’s onshore/offshore segment to create SpinCo and RemainCo. The separation is expected to be completed in the first half of 2020. Calgary-based Pembina Pipeline Corp. has entered into agreements to acquire Kinder Morgan Canada Ltd. and the US portion of the Cochin Pipeline system from Kinder Morgan for a total purchase price of approximately $4.35 billion.
One of the largest industrial projects in the UK in recent years, Mariner marks Equinor’s first operated field on the UK Continental Shelf. It is expected to produce 70,000 BOPD at peak rates. The $635-million deal sees Oman-based Petrogas and Norwegian private equity company HitecVision acquire a package of non-core North Sea assets, including 100% ownership stake in four fields. One of the largest pre-sanction fields on the UK Continental Shelf, Rosebank, could significantly bolster the company’s UK portfolio. However, the field’s water depth and harsh environment may run development costs into the multibillion-dollar range.