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Many methods exist for forecasting the production rate from unconventional reservoirs, but all have limitations. Recently, several publications have appeared relating the expected ultimate recovery (EUR) to the initial rate or the cumulative production after 3, 6, or 24 months. In the complete paper, these publications are reviewed, and their learnings extended, to several unconventional reservoirs. Work in 2018 studied 147 MFHWs covering many formations in the Permian Basin and a wide range of input variables and determined EUR using rate transient analysis, numerical simulation, and decline-curve analysis. The authors of that work compared the EUR with various cumulative production intervals (3, 6, 12, and 24 months) and concluded that the correlation with 3 months was poor; 24 months’ cumulative production was an accurate predictor of EUR but was not considered to be an early-enough predictor.
The Powder River Basin has emerged over the past year as the latest source of oil production growth for the Lower 48. Companies ranging from a reborn Samson Resources to US onshore mainstays Devon, Chesapeake, and EOG are now betting on the basin to become a long-term core asset. Colorado’s industry lacks the size, variety, and Wild West characteristics of Texas, but that is precisely why the Centennial State’s oil production is surging to record levels. This paper describes a comprehensive field study of eight horizontal wells deployed in the stacked Niobrara and Codell reservoirs in the Wattenberg Field (Denver-Julesburg Basin).
Designed to be a “living” map, it focuses on the largest fixed infrastructure for crude oil and refined products such as trunk pipelines, refineries, and storage facilities. Supreme Court upholds ACP’s controversial permit to lay pipe under national forest and across two states. McDermott’s completion comes 19 months after it was first awarded. SapuraOMV achieved first production from the Larak gas field in January. The natural gas pipeline is co-financed by the EU, with work beginning immediately.
A recovery in the energy industry is key to the oilfield water sector in the Permian. But the industry must address issues such as further research, regulatory changes, and technology. Poland state officials said the terminal expansion is crucial to strengthening the country’s energy security by increasing its capacity to receive LNG and gas from European countries and decreasing its dependence on Russia. Supreme Court upholds ACP’s controversial permit to lay pipe under national forest and across two states. Sleipner’s share in net-zero emissions savings will be more than 150,000 tonnes per year.
A test showing that it’s possible to automate the billing process for produced water hauling has opened the door for tracking a wide range of field activities. The industry downturn brought on by COVID-19 has motivated big companies to test practical applications sooner. The complete paper presents a discussion of the use of intelligent well completion in Santos Basin Presalt Cluster wells. The future of intelligent operations in our industry is being driven by advances from other sectors that have been embraced for petroleum applications. Foundational changes already taking place include advances in the type and volume of data being acquired and how the data are used.
Extraction Oil & Gas announced today that it has filed for bankruptcy protection in a Delaware court which will allow it to reorganize its debt and gain a fresh start upon its exit. The Denver-based firm was expecting to be cash-flow-positive this year but instead finds itself dealing with significantly lower commodity prices as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic that has slowed the world’s largest economies. The firm also reported a net income of $9 million compared with a debt load nearing $1.5 billion. That same month, Extraction withdrew its 2020 guidance as it missed an interest payment on bonds that do not expire until 2024, triggering a 30-day grace period that allowed the company time to mull its options. Extraction has obtained a $125-million financing facility, $50 million of which is new debt.
McDermott’s completion comes 19 months after it was first awarded. SapuraOMV achieved first production from the Larak gas field in January. The natural gas pipeline is co-financed by the EU, with work beginning immediately. The hunt for global alternatives to store crude oil includes offshore, global strategic reserves, pipelines, rail cars, and trucks. The deferments are the latest actions Shell has taken in response to record low crude prices.
Construction on Mozambique LNG stopped in April due to COVID-19, but Total continues work on the project even amid a $12 Billion shortfall. Financing for the Mozambique LNG project follows engineering contracts awarded by Total in the past few months. Delays and disruptions have stymied project plans in the past few months. How will companies prevent current stresses from morphing into catastrophic issues? Production from Train 3 comes almost a month after reaching its final commissioning stage.
Water flooding has been applied either along with primary production to maintain reservoir pressure or later to displace the oil in conventional and heavy oil reservoirs. Although it is generally accepted that water flooding of light oil reservoirs in oil-wet systems delivers the least oil compared to either water-wet or intermediate-wet systems, there is a lack of systematic research to study water flooding of heavy oils in oil-wet reservoirs. This research gives some new insights on the effect of injection velocity and oil viscosity on water flooding of oil-wet reservoirs.
Seven different oils with a broad range of viscosity ranging from 1 to 15,000 mPa.s at 25 °C were used in fifteen core flooding experiments where injection velocity was varied from 0.7 to 24.3 ft/D (2.5 × 10−6 m/s to 86.0 × 10−6 m/s). Oil-wet sand (with contact angle of 159.31 ± 3.06°) was used in all the flooding experiments. Breakthrough time was precisely determined using an in-line densitometer installed downstream of the core.
Our observations suggest that drainage displacement does not occur unless non-wetting (water) phase pressure exceeds a critical breakthrough capillary pressure. At the same injection velocity, this non-wetting phase invading pressure is a function of the viscosity of the oil being displaced. For the same viscosity ratio, oil recovery monotonically increases with increasing injection velocity suggesting that the flow regime is viscous-dominant for all the viscosities studied. This is consistent with the classical literature on carbonates (
In this paper, it is demonstrated that in an oil-wet system increasing velocity improves forced drainage to the extent that it takes over viscous fingering. For the viscous oil system (15,000 mPa.s), it was found that wettability critically affects the pressure gradient across the core to the extent that one order of magnitude larger pressure gradient was observed in an oil-wet system compared to the completely same system but water-wet. This notable larger pressure gradient in oil-wet system accompanies with delayed water breakthrough leading to incremental (around 30 % OOIP) oil recovery compared to the water-wet case. This is completely opposite to the classical literature on light oils and needs to be further investigated due to the lack of literature on heavy oil domains. Observations reported in this study can provide some useful information about the sizes of the pores being invaded as a function of oil viscosity and wettability, which is a subject of our future microfluidic studies at the pore scale.
The natural gas pipeline is co-financed by the EU, with work beginning immediately. The hunt for global alternatives to store crude oil includes offshore, global strategic reserves, pipelines, rail cars, and trucks. The deferments are the latest actions Shell has taken in response to record low crude prices. This contract is for the development of the Lambert Deep and Phase 3 offshore Northwest Australia. The court ruling comes less than a month after TC Energy announced plans to proceed with construction of the Keystone Pipeline.