Below is a list of basins and fields; however this is a short list since there are more than 65,000 oil and gas basins and fields of all sizes in the world. However, 94% of known oil fields is concentrated in fewer than 1500 giant and major fields. Most of the world's largest oilfields are located in the Middle East, but there are also supergiant ( 10 billion bbls) oilfields in India, Brazil, Mexico, Venezuela, Kazakhstan, and Russia. Add any basins or fields that are missing from this list!
Subsea processing using subsea separation and pumping technologies has the potential to revolutionize offshore oil and gas production. When combined with relatively mature subsea production technologies (see subsea chapter on well systems, manifold, pipeline, power and control umbilical, and so on), it can reduce development cost, enhance reservoir productivity, and improve subsea system reliability and operability. Over the period from 1970 to 2000, millions of dollars have been spent to develop subsea separation and pumping systems. But because of unresolved technical issues, along with a lack of confidence and clear understanding of the costs and benefits, industry has not rushed to deploy the technology on a commercial basis. However, as the industry moves into remote deep and ultradeep water, various degrees of subsea processing are becoming more common. In deep water, the technology can enable hydrocarbon recovery from small reservoirs that are subeconomic by conventional means, ...
Many oilfield processes normally employed on the surface may be adapted to downhole conditions. Examples include phase separation, pumping, and compression. Sometimes the design specifications for downhole processes may be looser than surface processing because control is more difficult. Partial processing, in which fluids are separated into a relatively pure phase stream and a residual mixed-phase stream, are most common. Downhole separation technology is best suited for removing the bulk (50 to 90%) of the gas or water, with downstream surface or subsea equipment being used to "polish" the streams for complete separation.
Many aspects of reservoir geology interplay with the immiscible gas/oil displacement process to determine overall recovery efficiency. As with any oil recovery process involving the injection of one fluid to displace oil in the reservoir, the internal geometries of the reservoir interval have a controlling effect on how efficiently the injected fluid displaces the oil from the whole of the reservoir. The stratigraphy of a reservoir is determined primarily by its depositional environment. First and foremost is how layered the reservoir is in terms of both how heterogeneous the various sand intervals are and the scale at which shales or other barriers to vertical flow are interbedded with the sands. Another very important aspect is how continuous the shale intervals are.
Recent studies have indicated that Huff-n-Puff (HNP) gas injection has the potential to recover an additional 30-70% oil from multi-fractured horizontal wells in shale reservoirs. Nonetheless, this technique is very sensitive to production constraints and is impacted by uncertainty related to measurement quality (particularly frequency and resolution), and lack of constraining data. In this paper, a Bayesian workflow is provided to optimize the HNP process under uncertainty using a Duvernay shale well as an example.
Compositional simulations are conducted which incorporate a tuned PVT model and a set of measured cyclic injection/compaction pressure-sensitive permeability data. Markov chain Monte Carlo (McMC) is used to estimate the posterior distributions of the model uncertain variables by matching the primary production data. The McMC process is accelerated by employing an accurate proxy model (kriging) which is updated using a highly adaptive sampling algorithm. Gaussian Processes are then used to optimize the HNP control variables by maximizing the lower confidence interval (μ-σ) of cumulative oil production (after 10 years) across a fixed ensemble of uncertain variables sampled from posterior distributions.
The uncertain variable space includes several parameters representing reservoir and fracture properties. The posterior distributions for some parameters, such as primary fracture permeability and effective half-length, are narrower, while wider distributions are obtained for other parameters. The results indicate that the impact of uncertain variables on HNP performance is nonlinear. Some uncertain variables (such as molecular diffusion) that do not show strong sensitivity during the primary production strongly impact gas injection HNP performance. The results of optimization under uncertainty confirm that the lower confidence interval of cumulative oil production can be maximized by an injection time of around 1.5 months, a production time of around 2.5 months, and very short soaking times. In addition, a maximum injection rate and a flowing bottomhole pressure around the bubble point are required to ensure maximum incremental recovery. Analysis of the objective function surface highlights some other sets of production constraints with competitive results. Finally, the optimal set of production constraints, in combination with an ensemble of uncertain variables, results in a median HNP cumulative oil production that is 30% greater than that for primary production.
The application of a Bayesian framework for optimizing the HNP performance in a real shale reservoir is introduced for the first time. This work provides practical guidelines for the efficient application of advanced machine learning techniques for optimization under uncertainty, resulting in better decision making.
PDC’s president and CEO describes the company’s management strategy for its hydraulic fracturing operations in the Wattenberg Field and the Delaware Basin. Baker Hughes is developing a drill bit capable of auto-adjusting its depth-of-cut feature to handle dynamic drilling conditions. Drilling the Severnaya Truba field in Aktobe, Kazakhstan, has been costly and time consuming.
As the industry continues to cut back on spending because of the downturn, is it worth getting into or staying involved with megaprojects? Kim McHugh, general manager of drilling and completions for Chevron Services Company, and Jake Howard, operations supervisor for Chevron in the Midland Delaware Basin, answer questions on the types of career transitions in the industry and how to handle them successfully. Andy Rogers, vice president of business development at Encana, shares his thoughts on the current state of the industry and provides career advice to young professionals amid the A&D landscape. Industry leaders Janeen Judah of Chevron and Kendra Lema of ConocoPhillips talk about what makes a person good leadership material and the opportunities available in the industry. The past and future decade: Industry leaders Eve Sprunt and Luis Rodriguez speak their minds on a host of industry topics.
Production and proved reserves in the Permian Basin’s Wolfcamp Shale and Bone Spring Formation are reaching new heights, and a new assessment from the US Geological Survey indicates the industry is just scratching the subsurface when it comes to what may be technically recoverable. Major oil discoveries by Armstrong Oil & Gas and ConocoPhillips have compelled the US Department of the Interior to reassess its estimate of undiscovered, technically recoverable resources in parts of Alaska. The list of the biggest gas plays in the US is being revised as the US Geological Survey creates new estimates based on additional drilling results and available rock samples. New at Number 2 is the Mancos Shale on the Western Slope of the Rockies with 66 Tcf in recoverable reserves.
The F field in the Middle East currently has more than 40 producing wells in the center of the structure. The uneven well distribution limits the understanding of 3D reservoir characterization, particularly in the flank areas. A new technique that analyzes scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of formation samples has been used to measure porosity and total organic carbon (TOC) in the Wolfcamp Shale of the Delaware Basin in west Texas.