A useful first step in the characterization of any new coal area is to compare its characteristics with those of successful CBM projects. Table 2 summarizes the characteristics of several successful projects in the US and includes parameters related to reservoir properties, gas production, gas resources, and economics. The table shows that successful projects have many similarities, including high permeabilities and high gas resource concentration; however, the table does not include aspects such as government incentives or high-value markets, which could elevate a marginal project to commercial status.
The process of drilling and completing coalbed methane (CBM) wells is similar to wells in conventional reservoirs. Coring, however, can pose special challenges. The first step in creating a drilling program for a CBM well involves gathering information about existing wells in a given area. After these data are gathered and analyzed, a preliminary drilling and completion prognosis can be drafted with the input of field operations personnel. An important aspect in drilling frontier or appraisal wells is to keep the drilling procedures relatively simple.
The SWP project is located in a mature waterflood undergoing conversion to CO2-WAG operations at Farnsworth, Texas, USA. Utilized CO2 is anthropogenic, sourced from a fertilizer and an ethanol plant. Major project goals are optimizing the storage/production balance, ensuring storage permanence, and developing best practices for CCUS.
This paper provides a review of work performed toward development of a 3D coupled Mechanical Earth Model (MEM) for use in assessment of caprock integrity, fault reactivation potential, and evaluation of stress dependent permeability in reservoir forecasting. Mechanical property estimates computed from geophysical logs at selected wellbores were integrated with 3D seismic elastic inversion products to create a 3D "static" mechanical property model sharing the same geological framework as the existing reservoir simulation model including 3 major faults. Stresses in the MEM were initialized from wellbore stress estimates and reservoir simulation pore pressures. One way and two way coupled simulations were performed using a compositional hydrodynamic flow model and geomechanical solvers.
Coupled simulations were performed on history matched primary, secondary (waterflood), and tertiary (CO2 WAG) recovery periods, as well as an optimized WAG prediction period. These simulations suggest that the field has been operating at conditions which are not conducive to either caprock failure or fault reactivation. Two way coupled simulations were performed in which permeability was periodically updated as a function of volumetric strain using the Kozeny-Carmen porosity-permeability relationship. These simulations illustrate the importance of frequent permeability updating when recovery scenarios result in large pressure changes such as in field re-pressurization through waterflood after a long primary depletion recovery period. Conversely, production forecasting results are less sensitive to permeability update frequency when pressure cycles are short and shallow as in WAG cycles.
This paper describes initial work on development of a mechanical earth model for use in assessment of geomechanical risks associated with CCUS operations at FWU. The emphasis of this work is on integration of available geomechanical data for creation of the static mechanical property model. Preliminary coupled hydro-mechanical simulations are presented to illustrate some of the key diagnostic output from coupled simulations which will be used in later work for in depth evaluation of specific risk factors such as induced seismicity and caprock integrity.
Bashir, Yasir (Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS) | Babasafari, Amir Abbas (Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS) | Biswas, Ajay (Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS) | Hamidi, Rositi (Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS) | Moussavi Alashloo, Seyed Yaser (Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS) | Tariq Janjuah, Hammad (American University of Beirut) | Prasad Ghosh, Deva (Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS) | Weng Sum, Chow (Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS)
A majority of remaining proven Oil & Gas reserves is contained by Carbonate reservoir, and much more complicated to explore as imaging of the Carbonate rocks is poor. In case of Carbonate data, seismic diffraction imaging has contributed to an enhancement in the quality of seismic but there is still lack of understanding the lithology and impedance contrast which can be defined by the seismic inversion. In contrast, to the conventional process, an integration of seismic inversion methods are necessary to understand the lithology and include the full band of frequency in our initial model to incorporate and detail study about the basin for prospect evaluation. In this paper, an integrated approch is developed for better deleniation of subsurface structure and lithologies. Seismic post stack inversion technique is applied to the Carbonate field to study Electroficies and lithofacies of subsurface strata for better and detail study of the reservoir.
As long as Stokes law or low viscosity Newtonian fluids have been available, common knowledge within the industry has been that whenever these fluids are utilized during the hydraulic fracturing process, very rapid settling of any conventional proppant occurs. Over the years, there have been occasional jobs pumped where the larger sized proppant was the initial proppant pumped, followed by the smaller meshed sand, ceramic or bauxite materials. Little attention was paid to this differing sort of treatment, due to the belief in piston like displacement of proppant regardless of fluid type. Commonly curable resin-coated sand was always pumped in the very last slurry stage of a fracturing treatment, in the common hopes of controlling any potential sand production from the near wellbore area when operations were concluded and flow back operations were initiated to bring the well on line. In reality, with typical over flush volumes, any resincoated sand pumped during a slick water treatment will travel far away from the wellbore.
The knowledge of rock mechanical properties of the Zubair Formation is required to assure the success of future exploration and development of this reserves. Hence, high consistency and quality of these parameters could expressively increase the economic revenues derivable from the reservoir. The main objective of the current work is to generate a high-resolution continuous profile of the rock mechanical properties using microresistivity image log across the thin-bed intervals along with rock mechanical properties laboratory tests. Retrieved core samples from the Zubair sandstone formation were run through extensive laboratory testing. The rock strength parameters were determined using consolidated drained (CD) multistage triaxial tests, while static elastic parameters were measured using consolidated drained (CD) triaxial tests. A petrophysical log enhancement technique was applied to achieve enhanced resolution neutron porosity log (with a vertical resolution of 0.2 in.). The critical components of this process were achieved highresolution neutron porosity log from microresistivity image log. This log was directly utilized to calculate high-resolution rock mechanical property logs through porosity empirical correlations.
Foamed fracturing fluids have been used in unconventional reservoirs to reduce the water use and minimize deleterious impact on water-sensitive formations. As part of a Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored program, we previously identified an optimal thermodynamic pathway to transform wellhead natural gas (NG) into pressurized NG suitable for use as the internal phase in a foamed fracturing fluid. This study now aims to extend that work by determining the impact of using NG foam fracturing fluids on hydraulic fracture geometry and on productivity from the unconventional reservoirs.
The current study is focused on investigating the impact of the NG-based foam of various foam qualities in hydraulic fracture geometries and their production through simulation models. Field data and laboratory-based measurements for NG foam fluid properties are incorporated in the study. In addition, the transient response of the fluid flowback from foam-based fluid is studied using numerical simulation. Comparative analysis is done with typical slickwater, linear gel, and crosslinked fluid application for hydraulic fracturing using 3D-complex hydraulic fracture models. 1D and 2D particle transport models have been used to verify the differences in proppant distribution in the hydraulic fractures.
Rapid wellbore clean-up, low formation damage, and effect of the relative permeability improvement are added advantages apart from reducing the water requirements for hydraulic fracturing. In addition to providing the logistical benefit of using wellsite liberated low pressure gas, NG foamed fracturing fluid has a dynamic fluid leak-off behavior and increased effective viscosity over the base fluid that allows pumping and transporting proppant at least 10% farther in the hydraulic fractures than linear gel. Slickwater displays poor proppant transport and hence poses inability to pump higher concentrations of sand. NG foam fracturing fluid on the other hand displays improved proppant transport and has been shown to create more complexity than slickwater in our simulations.
Use of NG foamed fracturing fluid has not been practiced widely yet. Application of NG Foaming field test and reaping the economic benefit from simplified logistics and improved production would enables operators to invest in creating a safer handling environment for wellsite application of NG foam.
We examine the feasibility of high-resolution microseismic imaging of unconventional reservoirs. Because downhole microseismic data have almost an order of magnitude higher frequencies than seismic reflection data, a comparable increase in image resolution might be expected, bringing potential resolution of microseismic images to a few meters. We demonstrate that such a resolution is, indeed, achievable and present two case studies illustrating the reservoir features that can be imaged. Our first example, constructed with the P-waves recorded in the Woodford Field, reveals internal fabric of the Woodford reservoir and formations surrounding it, suggesting the possibility of discriminating the stimulated and unstimulated zones of the Lower Woodford shale. Encouraged by those results, in our second example, this time from the Bakken Field, we use the shearwaves, more sensitive to fluids than the P-waves, to find out whether hydraulic fractures themselves could be imaged. Our seismic volume contains peculiar geobodies, growing precisely from perforation holes spaced at a 40 ft interval in a treatment well landed in the Middle Bakken, the geobodies penetrating through the Lower Bakken shale reservoir and terminating at the top of the Three Forks dolomites. While our interpretation of the extracted geobodies as hydraulic fractures remains an interpretation, the remarkably high resolution of seismic images obtained in both case studies is unquestionable.