A passive tracer that labels gas or water in a well-to-well tracer test must fulfill the following criteria. The tracers discussed in the following sections have properties that make them suitable for application in well-to-well test in which dilution volumes are large. For small fields in which the requirement with respect to dilution is less important, other tracers can be applied. Figure 1.1 – Production curve of S14CN compared with the production curve of HTO in a dynamic flooding laboratory test (carbonate rock) (after Bjørnstad and Maggio). There are no possibilities for thermal degradation, and it follows the water closely. The 36Cl- is a long-lived nuclide (3 105 years), and the detection method is atomic mass spectroscopy rather than radiation measurements.
The selection introduces different problems that have been addressed, but the original papers should be studied to obtain a more detailed description of the programs. Injection water and gas were monitored with tracers, 18 and the resulting tracer measurements are discussed in this page. The same tracers used in the Snorre field have been injected in the Gullfaks field in the North Sea. The tracers identified unexpected communication paths between layers. The results contributed to methods for improving the WAG recovery performance.
The present study provides a comprehensive set of new analytical expressions to help understand and quantify well interference due to competition for flow space between the hydraulic fractures of parent and child wells. Determination of the optimum fracture spacing is a key factor to improve the economic performance of unconventional oil and gas resources developed with multi-well pads. Analytical and numerical model results are combined in our study to identify, analyze, and visualize the streamline patterns near hydraulic fractures, using physical parameters that control the flow process, such as matrix permeability, hydraulic fracture dimensions and assuming infinite fracture conductivity. The algorithms provided can quantify the effect of changes in fracture spacing on the production performance of both parent and child wells. All results are based on benchmarked analytical methods which allow for fast computation, making use of Excel-based spreadsheets and Matlab-coded scripts. Such practical tools can support petroleum engineers in the planning of field development operations. The theory is presented with examples of its practical application using field data from parent and child wells in the Eagle Ford shale (Brazos County, East Texas). Based on our improved understanding of the mechanism and intensity of production interference, the fracture spacing (this study) and inter-well spacing (companion study) of multifractured horizontal laterals can be optimized to effectively stimulate the reservoir volume to increase the overall recovery factor and improve the economic performance of unconventional oil and gas properties.
The objective of this study is to visualize the drained rock volume (DRV) and pressure depletion in hydraulically and naturally fractured reservoirs, using a high-resolution simulator to plot streamlines and time-of-flight contours that outline the DRV, based on computationally efficient complex potentials. A recently developed expression based on fast, grid-less Complex Analysis Methods (CAM) is applied to model the flow through discrete natural fractures with variable hydraulic conductivity. The impact of natural fractures on the local development of DRV contours and streamline patterns is analyzed. A sensitivity analysis of various permeability contrasts between natural fractures and the matrix is included. The results show that the DRV near hydraulic fractures is significantly affected by the presence of nearby natural fractures. The DRV location shifts according to the orientations, permeability and the density of the natural fractures. Reservoirs with numerous natural fractures result in highly distorted DRV shapes as compared to reservoirs without any discernable natural fractures. Additionally, the DRV shift due to natural fractures may contribute to enhanced well-interference by flow channeling via the natural fractures, as well as the creation of undrained rock volumes between the natural fractures. Complementary pressure depletion plots for each case show how the local pressure field changes, in a heterogeneous reservoir, due to the presence of natural fractures. The results from this study offer insights on how natural fractures affect the DRV and pressure contour plots. This study uses a fast grid-less and meshless high-resolution flow simulation tool based on CAM to simulate the flow in heterogeneous naturally fractured porous media. The CAM tool provides a practical/efficient simulation platform, complementary to grid-based reservoir simulators.
Using planar fracture models to match treatment pressure and improve understanding of the fracture geometry generation is not a new concept. Knowledge gained from this exercise has historically been used to improve engineered fracture completions and production, and maximize net present value (NPV); however, at some point during the progression from vertical to horizontal wellbores, many within the industry have forgotten about the learnings that can still be gained from current fracture models. Engineered completions have been largely replaced by spreadsheet efficiencies relevant to operations rather than production in too many cases. Some images of unconventional well stimulation treatments portray fractures growing in every direction, forming patterns that resemble shattered windshields, and have often excluded the known physics related to rock geomechanics, reservoir properties, and geology. Excuses to dismiss modeling are numerous and are gaining the reasoning of conformists.
Unconventional resource plays might or might not contain large numbers of natural fractures; but, current fracture models can still be used to gain insight into the fracture geometries being generated. While the development of complex fracture models continues to evolve, the industry can still gain insight to fracture geometry and resulting production using current planar fracture modeling. Caveats to this process are that it requires: Valid measured data to establish model constraints. The engineer to understand the basic physics of how fractures are generated and when (and when not) to twist the "knobs" in the model. The engineer to understand which "knobs" should be used based on real diagnostics information. The actual single well production to be an integral part of the process.
Valid measured data to establish model constraints.
The engineer to understand the basic physics of how fractures are generated and when (and when not) to twist the "knobs" in the model.
The engineer to understand which "knobs" should be used based on real diagnostics information.
The actual single well production to be an integral part of the process.
This paper demonstrates the results of honoring data measurements from a multitude of potential sources, including downhole microseismic data, downhole deformation tiltmeters, offset pressure monitoring, DTS, DAS, diagnostic fracture injection test (DFIT) analysis, injection as well as production data with bottomhole pressure measurements, etc., and the resulting observations and conclusions. Several industry examples are discussed to help frame the vast amount of information possible to help engineers do a better job of including more diagnostics into routine operations to provide additional insight and ultimately result in improved models and completion designs.
This paper is not intended to merely demonstrate the results of the work but to spark an interest in bringing more intense engineering back to fracture stimulation modeling for horizontal completions.
Tian, Changbing (Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development, PetroChina) | Lei, Zhengdong (Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development, PetroChina) | Jiang, Qingping (Exploration and Development Research Institute of Xinjiang Oilfield Company) | Chang, Tianquan (Exploration and Development Research Institute of Xinjiang Oilfield Company) | Chen, Dongliang (Exploration and Development Research Institute of Xinjiang Oilfield Company) | Lu, Zhiyuan (Exploration and Development Research Institute of Xinjiang Oilfield Company) | Li, Sheng (Exploration and Development Research Institute of Xinjiang Oilfield Company)
Large platforms, long horizontal sections, small well spacings and dense cutting have become economical and effective development means for tight oil reservoirs. Well spacing and fracture design are critical parameters impacting production and Internal rate of return (IRR) of tight oil reservoirs. In order to maximize the total stimulated reservoir area and fracture-controlled reserves, the well spacing and fracture spacing should be small enough. However, in order to minimize the chance of fracture hits caused by offset wells and the overlapping drainage area of a nearby well to avoid Asset spillover, the spacing well should large enough.
Based on minifrac data and microseismic fracture mapping results, a natural/hydraulic fracture network was generated and input into an unstructured-grid-based discrete fracture reservoir simulation model. Its accuracy was calibrated with the well production history. For each group of fracture design and well spacing, well interference was determined by estimating ultimate recovery (EUR) difference between a single well and a middle well among multiple wells. Based on actual information of tight oil developments, the pressure interference were examined by field trail data and well spacing simulations. The real scenarios were selected to study effects of well spacing on EUR and ultimate IRR. Effects of reservoir permeability and fracture half-length on optimal well spacing were also analyzed.
It was found that the decrease in Long-term EURs for different well spacings is a good indicator for well spacing optimization. Based on the reservoir simulation and economic analysis, the maximum IRR of the tight oil reservoir with permeability of 0.23mD can achieved when the well spacing is 260m. Meanwhile, the detailed results were also illustrated to show the effects of fracture half-length, reservoir permeability as well as oil price variation on IRR.
The paper demonstrates an effective method and a workflow to optimize well spacing and fracture treatments design through integrating advanced multi-stage fracture modeling with discrete fracture reservoir simulation in the area of unconventional resource developments. Such optimization studies contribute to minimize operation cost and improve the economy of resource development.
It will provide re ... Harkand has secured a USD 5 million contract from Swiber Offshore Mexico to perform saturation divin ... Two Bumi Armada subsidiary companies secured USD 300 million worth of contracts from ElectroGas for ... Amec Foster Wheeler has been awarded a contract by BP worth more than USD 73 million. Tam International, which provides inflatable and swellable packers for the oil and gas industry, has ... Sanchez Energy closed a deal with a subsidiary of Sanchez Production Partners to sell wellbore and a ... Penn West Petroleum has entered into a USD 321 million agreement with Freehold Royalties to sell an ... Bonterra Energy has acquired Cardium formation-focused assets in the Pembina area of Alberta, Canada ... Petrobras has sold its assets in Argentina’s Austral basin to Compañia General de Combustibles for U ... Pemex signed an agreement worth USD 1 billion with private equity firmFirst Reserve to jointly inves ... Gulfport Energy entered into an agreement to acquire Paloma Partners III for USD 300 million. Apache sold its 13% stake in the Wheatstone LNG terminal in Western Australia and 50% interest in th ... Oil and gas safety company Secorp opened a new office in Hobbs, New Mexico. Bill Barrett Corp. has signed agreements with several undisclosed recipients for the sale of the maj ... Encana said it will sell its remaining 54% stake in PrairieSky Royalty via a USD-2.4-billion Cardinal Energy entered into an agreement with an unnamed seller to acquire assets whose total daily ... Petrobras has awarded a contract, worth USD 465 million over a period of 5 years, to Aker Oilfield S ... CGG received contracts for the 3D seismic acquisition of four surveys using its marine broadband tec ... IKM Subsea, a subsidiary of IKM Group, has been awarded a contract by Eni Indonesia to provide remot ... OneSubsea, Schlumberger, and Helix Energy Solutions signed a letter of intent to develop technologie ... Premier Hytemp has committed to opening a USD-20-million, 67,000-ft2 precision engineering facility ... Expro has constructed a new 20,000‑m2 facility in Macaé, Brazil.
Being a startup in oil and gas isn’t always easy, and so it is nice when you get noticed at the industry’s largest gathering, the Offshore Technology Conference. Learn about 10 new companies that industry insiders say are the ones to watch in 2018. The decision to launch the Offshore Technology Conference in May 1969 was visionary, but the subsequent success of the yearly conference has exceeded the wildest dreams of the original sponsors. The Offshore Technology Conference has announced the winners of the 2018 Spotlight on New Technology Award, recognizing excellence in offshore E&P. This year’s OTC awards will go to individuals and companies that have made significant contributions to the offshore section.
The international major has been playing with intelligent programs for years, but this new deal shows that it is now ready to scale those efforts up to cover hundreds of thousands of pieces of equipment. Pioneer's Analytics Project Reveals the Good and Bad of Machine Learning A recent research effort has shown that the digital journey is full of stumbling blocks. Just like humans, advanced computing technology will get some things right and some things wrong. Some operating companies are now enlisting engineers as foot soldiers in their analytics army. It is not required yet, but those looking to get ahead would be wise to get involved.
A Midland Basin case study on estimating production, drainage volume, and interference from multiple stacked wells. Openhole multistage (OHMS) systems are more cost-effective than the cemented casing plug-and-perf (CCPP) techniques for increasing production and reducing development costs. Understanding how much rock is being stimulated and propped is critical for unconventional producers. New imaging methods using electromagnetic energy or acoustic microemitters could represent a milestone in understanding what is left behind after fracturing. The integration of microseismic data with 3D seismic attributes, and well log and completions data is used to understand geomechanical rock properties.