A major outstanding challenge in developing unconventional wells is determining the optimal cluster spacing. The spacing between perforation clusters influences hydraulic fracture geometry, drainage volume, production rates, and the estimated ultimate recovery (EUR) of a well. This paper systematically examines the impact of cluster spacing in the Eagle Ford shale wells by calibrating fracture geometry and fracture/reservoir properties using field injection and production data and evaluating the optimal cluster spacing under different reservoir conditions.
We explore a sequential technique to evaluate and optimize cluster spacing using a controlled field test at the Eagle Ford field. This study first identifies the fracture geometry by history matching the field injection treatment pressure. Using the rapid Fast Marching Method based flow simulation and Pareto-based multi-objective history matching, we match the well drainage volume and the cumulative production to calibrate the fracture and SRV properties. The impact of cluster spacing on the EUR are examined using the calibrated models. We run injection and production forecasts for various cluster spacing to investigate optimal completion under different reservoir conditions.
The unique set of injection and production data used for this study includes two horizontal wells completed side by side. The well with tighter cluster spacing has larger drainage volume and better production performance. This is because of the increased fracture complexity in spite of the impact of stress shadow effects leading to shorter fractures. The calibrated models suggest that most of the fractures are planar in the Eagle Ford shale. The well with wider cluster spacing tends to develop longer fractures but the well with tighter cluster spacing has better stimulated reservoir volume with enhanced permeability, thus resulting in better drainage volume and production performance. From the optimization runs under different reservoir conditions, our results seem to indicate that when natural fractures are present or when stress anisotropy is high with no natural fractures, the wells with tighter cluster spacing tend to outperform the wells with wider cluster spacing. However, severe stress shadow effect is observed when stress anisotropy is low with no natural fractures, likely making tighter cluster spacing wells less favorable.
The calibrated fracture geometries and properties with a unique set of Eagle Ford field data explain the performance variation for completions using different cluster spacing within the reservoir and provides insight into optimal cluster spacing under different reservoir conditions (low vs high stress anisotropy and with/without natural fractures).
With the industry shifting gears toward pad development there has been a significant increase in operator press releases to stockholders expressing concern about fracture driven interactions (formerly called "frac hits") within a drilling spacing unit (DSU) (
Depletion Mitigation Opportunities Depletion Mitigation Results Infill Well Asymmetric Frac in Toe Stage with Depleted Primary Well Overlap
Depletion Mitigation Opportunities
Depletion Mitigation Results
Infill Well Asymmetric Frac in Toe Stage with Depleted Primary Well Overlap
Historically, refrac operations in horizontal organic shale wells have had unpredictable production results, with the industry moving toward mechanical isolation following an often painful history that included single stage "pump and really pray" treatments with no diversion to "pump and pray" with chemical or ball sealer diversion. While results from mechanical isolation have been more consistent than these first two methods (
This seminar will teach participants how to identify, evaluate, and quantify risk and uncertainty in everyday oil and gas economic situations. It reviews the development of pragmatic tools, methods, and understandings for professionals that are applicable to companies of all sizes. The seminar also briefly reviews statistics, the relationship between risk and return, and hedging and future markets. Strategic thinking and planning are key elements in an organisation’s journey to maximise value to shareholders, customers, and employees. Through this workshop, attendees will go through the different processes involved in strategic planning including the elements of organisational SWOT, business scenario and options development, elaboration of strategic options and communication to stakeholders.
Decisions in E&P ventures are affected by Bias, Blindness, and Illusions (BBI) which permeate our analyses, interpretations and decisions. This one-day course examines the influence of these cognitive pitfalls and presents techniques that can be used to mitigate their impact. Bias refers to errors in thinking whereby interpretations and judgments are drawn in an illogical fashion. Blindness is the condition where we fail to see an unexpected event in plain sight. Illusions refer to misleading beliefs based on a false impression of reality.
A passive tracer that labels gas or water in a well-to-well tracer test must fulfill the following criteria. It must have a very low detection limit, must be stable under reservoir conditions, must follow the phase that is being tagged and have a minimal partitioning into other phases, must have no adsorption to rock material, and must have minimal environmental consequences. The tracers discussed in the following sections have properties that make them suitable for application in well-to-well test in which dilution volumes are large. For small fields in which the requirement with respect to dilution is less important, other tracers can be applied. Figure 1.1 – Production curve of S14CN compared with the production curve of HTO in a dynamic flooding laboratory test (carbonate rock) (after Bjørnstad and Maggio). There are no possibilities for thermal degradation, and it follows the water closely. The 36Cl- is a long-lived nuclide (3 105 years), and the detection method is atomic mass spectroscopy rather than radiation measurements. The disadvantage is that the analysis demands very sophisticated equipment and is relatively time consuming. For mono-valent anions, the retention factors (see Eq. 6.2) are in the range of 0 to -0.03, which means that such tracers pass faster through the reservoir rock than the water itself (represented by HTO). A compound such as 35SO42- may be applied in some very specific cases but should be avoided normally because of absorption. Some anionic tracers may show complex behavior. Radioactive iodine (125I- and 131I-) breaks through before water but has a substantially longer tail than HTO. Both a reversible sorption and ion exclusion seem to play a role here. Cationic tracers are, in general, not applicable; however, experiments have qualified 22Na as an applicable water tracer in highly saline (total dissolved solids concentration seawater salinity) waters. In such waters, the nonradioactive sodium will operate as a molecular carrier for the tracer molecule. Retention factor has been measured in the range of 0.07 (see Eq. 6.2) at reservoir conditions in carbonate rock (chalk). Wood reported the use of 134Cs, 137Cs, 57Co, and 60Co cations as tracers.
Interwell tracer tests are widely used. This article reviews some of the studies reported in open literature. The selection introduces different problems that have been addressed, but the original papers should be studied to obtain a more detailed description of the programs. The Snorre field is a giant oil reservoir (sandstone) in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. Injection water and gas were monitored with tracers, 18 and the resulting tracer measurements are discussed in this page.
Shoemaker, Michael (Callon Petroleum Company) | Hawkins, James (Callon Petroleum Company) | Becher, John (Callon Petroleum Company) | Gonzales, Veronica (Callon Petroleum Company) | Mukherjee, Sandeep (Callon Petroleum Company) | Garmeh, Reza (Callon Petroleum Company) | Kuntz, David (Callon Petroleum Company)
E&P companies in the Permian Basin typically implement basin-wide development strategies that involve cookie-cutter type methods that use multi-well pads with identical geometric stage and cluster spacing. Such development strategies however fail to recognize and account for subsurface stress heterogeneity, and thus assume similar geomechanical properties that are homogeneous and isotropic which may cause well-to-well interference or “frac hits”, particularly near “parent” wells as fields continue to mature.
Minimum horizontal stress (Sh) is the leading parameter that controls hydraulic fracture stimulation, but is next to impossible to measure quantitatively, especially far field and in 3D space. In-situ stress differences from fluid depletion, combined with stratigraphy and subsequent mineralogy contrasts, control fracture containment vertically and laterally which define fracture propagation and complexity. Far field preference of virgin rock towards brittle vs ductile deformation is governed by mineralogy which defines the elastic moduli or geomechanical behavior of the rock. When integrated with pore pressure and overburden stress, the elastic rock properties are characterized by the Mechanical Earth Model (or MEM) which defines key inputs for calculating Sh using the uniaxial Ben Eaton stress equation. However, implementing this model historically produces incorrect calculated stress, when compared to field measured stress, due to an assumed homogeneous and isotropic subsurface.
Parameterization of fracture geometry models for well spacing, frac hit mitigation, and engineered treatment design in shale (or mudrock) requires an anisotropic in-situ stress measurement that accurately captures subsurface stress states. A method herein is proposed that achieves this using a modified version of the anisotropic Ben Eaton stress equation. The method calculates minimum horizontal stress by substitution of AVO seismic inversion volumes directly into the stress equation, replacing the bound Poisson's ratio term with an equivalent anisotropic corrected Closure Stress Scalar (CSS) defined in terms Lamé elastic parameters, specifically lambda (λ) or incompressibility and mu (μ) for shear rigidity. The CSS volume is corrected for anisotropy using static triaxial core, and is calibrated to multi domain data types including petrophysics, rock physics, completion engineering, and reservoir engineering (DFIT) measurements.
Successful application of said method in the Delaware and Midland sub-basins (of the greater Permian Basin) is shown. Anisotropic minimum horizontal stress (Sh) volumes from 3D seismic defined at 1 ft. vertical log resolution were interpreted quantitatively regionally, particularly as a prevention tool near parent wells prone to frac-hits. Moreover, the method provides an anisotropic measurement of in-situ stress variability (or stress differential) to qualitatively model 3D fracture geometries for engineered treatment optimization. Current stress modeling methods rely on the propagation of geomechanical properties from well control, which do not necessarily represent rock properties and stress states at the area of interest.
Park, Jaeyoung (Texas A&M University) | Iino, Atsushi (Texas A&M University) | Datta-Gupta, Akhil (Texas A&M University) | Bi, Jackson (Anadarko Petroleum Corporation) | Sankaran, Sathish (Anadarko Petroleum Corporation)
The objective of this study is to develop a workflow to rapidly simulate injection and production phases of hydraulically fractured shale wells by (a) incorporating fracture propagation in flow simulators using a simplified physical model for pressure-dependent fracture conductivity and fracture pore volume (b) developing a hybrid Fast Marching Method (FMM) and 3D Finite Difference(FD) model for efficient coupled simulation and (c) automating the entire workflow for rapid analysis in a single simulator domain.
Pressure-dependent fracture transmissibility and pore volume multiplier models are assigned to predefined potential hydraulic fracture paths to mimic geomechanical behavior of fractures (i.e. opening and closure). The multipliers are based on empirical equations (e.g., Barton-Bandis model) and theoretical models (e.g., linear elastic fracture mechanics and cubic law). The FMM-based simulation transforms an original 3D reservoir model into an equivalent 1D simulation grid leading to orders of magnitude faster computation and is utilized to efficiently history-match field production and pressure data. A population-based history matching algorithm was used to minimize data misfit and quantify uncertainties in tuning parameters.
We demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method using synthetic and field examples. First, we validated our proposed simplified fracture propagation model with a comprehensive coupled fluid flow and geomechanical simulator, ABAQUS. The results showed close agreement in both injection pressure response and fracture geometry. Next, the method was applied to a field case to history-match injection pressure and production data. Fracture geometry and properties were inferred from the injection phase and are input to the production phase modeling. After history matching, the misfit and uncertainty ranges in reservoir and fracture properties were substantially reduced.
The proposed workflow enables rapid analyses of hydraulically fractured wells and does not require computationally demanding geomechanical simulations to generate fracture geometry and properties. The FMM-based simulation further improves computational efficiency and allows us to automate the workflow using population-based history matching algorithms to quantify and assess parameter uncertainty.
Distributed vibration sensing has provided a new measurement technique for monitoring hydraulic fracture treatments. We demonstrate that successful existing approaches that integrate pumping parameters and microseismic observations with complex fracture simulation and 3D mechanical earth modelling can be extended to incorporate distributed strain, vibration and flow allocation providing a highly constrained interpretation.
In a monitoring well, where we deploy a hybrid borehole geophone array of 3C geophones for accurate microseismic events mapping, we additionally recover a signal related to static strain from the lowest vibration frequencies of the fibre. From this hybrid cable composed of fiber interconnects and 3C geophones, we may recover extended-aperture information (i) to supplement the geophone-acquired data at microseismic frequencies, (ii) to better constrain hypocenter determination and associated characteristics (e.g., source parameters, attributes, rock failure mechanisms). Furthermore, deploying a fiber within the treatment well, we can recover the relative flow split between the perforation clusters, obtain the bottom hole pressure using the attenuation of the pump harmonics, etc. We integrate these new measurements into the existing geomechanical modelling approach to stimulation interpretation.
We present an example of job planning where synthetic fiber vibrations at the full frequency range and pump data as well as geophone responses are created based on geomechanical and geophysical simulation.
The objective of this study was to perform flow simulation based-reservoir modeling on a two-well pad with a long production history and identical completion parameters in the Midland Basin. A reservoir model was built using properties generated from an established geomodel. Sensitivity analysis was performed during early history match to identify ‘heavy hitters’. Subsequent history matching was conducted with less than 10% of global error, and ranges of uncertain parameters have substantially narrowed as a result. The top 50 history-matched models are selected to predict Estimate Ultimate Recovery (EUR) followed by probabilistic analysis that shows P50 of oil EUR is within acceptable range of deterministic EUR estimates. Lateral spacing sensitivity was investigated with the best history-matched model to find the maximum volume and economic benefit by varying lateral spacing of a two-well pad. The results show that, given the current completion design, well spacing tighter than the current development practice in the area is less effective in terms of volume recovery yet economic values suggest that the optimum spacing for the area is around 150% of current development assumption for one section. The presented workflow provides a systematic approach to find the optimum lateral spacing in terms of volume and economic matrices per one section. Change in commodity price will shift optimum well spacing recommendation by suggested workflow. Similar methodology can be readily performed to evaluate spacing optimization in other acreage.