Li, Ke (Clausthal University of Technology) | Samara, Hanin (Eurotechnica GmbH) | Wang, Xuan (Clausthal University of Technology) | Jaeger, Philip (EUROTECHNICA GmbH) | Ganzer, Leonhard (Clausthal University of Technology) | Wegner, Jonas (Clausthal University of Technology) | Xie, Lin (Southwest Petroleum University)
Oil shale is the most abundant fossil energy resource discovered in Jordan. The objective of this paper is to investigate reservoir characteristics and evaluate the resource potential of the Sultani oil shale deposit in central Jordan, based on their mineral composition, geochemical characteristics and reservoir microstructures.
The samples used for this study were taken from the outcrop in Sultani deposits, South-East of Al-Karak city adjacent to the desert highway. The collected samples were cleaned and made into powder sample, kerogen sample, thin section sample, and ion beam polishing sample. The powder sample was analyzed by X-Ray Diffraction and Organic Carbon Analyzer to clarify the mineral composition and TOC value. The kerogen samples were tested for evaluate the kerogen type and maturity of organic matter. The thin section and ion beam polishing sample were examined by Optical Microscope and Electron Backscattered Diffraction to observe reservoir microstructures. The Sultani shale is formed by various types of minerals, the majority composition is 67.25% calcite and 18.38% quartz, with little apatite, dolomite, and pyrite. The geochemical test shows that: The Kerogen type is dominated by type II1; the Sultani shale can be burned directly and continuously in the air, due to it contains a large amount of organic matter, TOC average value is 14.82%; the value of equivalent vitrinite reflectance is between 0.55% and 0.67%. The Sultani shale is high-quality source rock but with low maturity. Based on Optical Microscope and EBSD result, the micrite (calcite grain size<0.004mm) constitute Sultani shale. Normally, the reservoir should have extremely low porosity, but there is an amount of foraminifer shell fossil which forms the pore structure. The remarkable thing is that the fossil pore have large pore volume and it is poorly connected to its neighbor, the hydrocarbon reserve in the isolated pores.
The Sultani shale is tight reservoir (large pore volume, but poorly connection) with economically attractive resource potential. However, there will be difficult for exploitation, due to it’s specially pore structure. Acid fracturing is feasible technology to connect the isolated fossil pore, thus significantly increase oil production. The Sultani shale can also be burned directly for power generation and get the lime product at the same time, Surface mining is also feasible exploitation patterns.
Lolla, Sri Venkata Tapovan (ExxonMobil Upstream Research Co) | Bailey, Jeffrey (ExxonMobil Development Co) | Costin, Simona (Imperial Oil Resources Ltd) | Hons, Michael (Imperial Oil Resources Ltd) | Liu, Xinlong (Imperial Oil Resources Ltd) | Yam, Helen (Imperial Oil Resources Ltd) | Akhmetov, Arslan (ExxonMobil Canada Properties) | Hayward, Timothy (Imperial Oil Resources Ltd) | Brisco, Colin (Imperial Oil Resources Ltd)
Continuous subsurface surveillance is important for heavy oil in-situ recovery processes where induced stresses in the overburden can compromise the integrity of the wellbores. Wellbore failure may lead to the undesirable loss of fluids into the overburden. In recent years, there has been a rapid growth in the use of Passive Seismic monitoring systems to aid in subsurface surveillance activities, with the ultimate goal of detecting potential integrity issues as early as possible. However, the massive volume of data recorded by these instruments is time-consuming and error-prone to process manually. This paper introduces EMMAA (ExxonMobil Microseismic Automated Analyzer), an automated workflow to reliably process continuous microseismic data, detect subsurface integrity issues, and ultimately reduce the latency in responding to wellbore integrity issues.
A novel cloud-based technology for managing microseismic data is briefly described. The seismic waveforms, recorded by a distributed array of geophone receivers, are automatically analyzed to determine the type and source of subsurface disturbances (
First, novel frequency-domain and deep learning analyses are used to distinguish noisy signals from the seismic waveforms such as compressional and shear waves produced by the events. Next, the location of the event is calculated and its seismic attributes are computed. Finally, the type and severity of the seismic event are determined by an event classifier.
The performance of the automated workflow is examined in the context of accurate detection of casing failures in a heavy oil Cyclic Steam Stimulation (CSS) application. The event features that distinguish casing breaks from other seismic events are described. It is shown that the methodology is able to achieve a high detection rate when back-tested against a historical data-set of known casing failures. False positives are adequately contained by preventing waveforms of electrical or mechanical noise from being processed.
In a production environment, the event processing workflow is run on distributed servers and analyzes triggered seismic data in real-time. Depending on the severity of the microseismic events detected, operators are immediately alerted via email and text messages, so that remedial actions may be swiftly initiated. The utility of this integrated system is further exemplified by the massive reduction in the time taken to detect casing breaks—from up to 36 hours historically, down to less than one hour in most instances.
Extensions of EMMAA that enable the detection of a wide variety of microseismic events are also discussed. These events include surface casing slips that occur at the casing shoe, cement de-bonding events near the wellbores, and events indicative of potential fluid migration in the overburden.
Costin, Simona (Imperial Oil) | Smith, Richard (Imperial Oil) | Yuan, Yanguang (Bitcan Geoscience and Engineering) | Andjelkovic, Dragan (Schlumberger Canada) | Garcia Rosas, Gabriel (Schlumberger Canada)
Open-hole mini-frac tests are seldom performed in the Athabasca and Cold Lake oil sands due to the complexity of operations. In this paper we present the results of open-hole injections tests performed in Cold Lake, Alberta (AB), Canada. The objective of the injection tests was to assess the in-situ stress condition in the Cretaceous Colorado Group. The injection tests results combined with the run of formation image logs (FMI) before and after the injection have enabled not only the determination of the in-situ minimum stress in the rock, but also the full 3-D stress tensor, along with the orientation and inclination of the hydraulic fracture. The tests were performed in IOL 102/08-02-066-03W4 (N10 Passive Seimic Well, 'PSW'). The injection tests have revealed that the vertical stress in the area is the in-situ minimum stress, consistent with previous measurements. The hydraulically-induced fracture has sub-horizontal to moderate dip angle, mostly owing to the preexisting fabric of the rock, and peaks in the general NE-SW direction. Numerical modeling of the in-situ stresses has shown that the values of the vertical and the minimum horizontal stresses are close, with the vertical stress consistently being smaller than the minimum horizontal stress in all tested zones.
Well Integrity engineers are commonly challenged with using limited resources, and even more limited data, when trying to identify which wells amongst their diverse well inventory may be prone to damage and failure, the mechanisms and influential factors responsible for the potential damage and failures, and the reason why certain wells may pose the greatest risk. Furthermore, these integrity engineers are often uncertain as to the parameters that should be tracked; what inspection methods should be conducted, in which wells and at what frequency measures should be taken; and how the asset risks can be adequately determined and relayed to management to prioritize near-term and future financial investments into well integrity and decommissioning cost centres. In this paper, an approach and workflow are described on how the application of a combination of reliability and risk methods, parameter-based damage models and available field data can be used to develop a tool used by asset integrity and operations personnel to risk-rank wells by the probability of failure and associated consequences. Additionally, this paper illustrates how the approach and models developed are adaptable to both the damage mechanisms specific to the application and to the data and parameters that are currently being measured or readily obtained, or other related variables that can used as suitable proxy parameters. As experience and history build (adding to the understanding and prioritization of damage mechanisms and key parameters), and to improve estimated values of the associated probability of failure due to these mechanisms, the knowledge is fed back into the model to improve its predictive capabilities. This paper also describes how the methodology was applied by a commercial SAGD operator to develop a subsurface isolation risk assessment tool that was tailored to their wells, their application conditions and the parameters that they measure. The types of static and dynamic parameters that this tool considers, including geologic, well design, construction and operational data, are also illustrated, as well as how the tool is being used to prioritize injection and production wells by relative risk. Illustrative examples of how well, pad and asset risks are being identified, rolled-up across the asset and summarized are presented, and how well integrity and risk metrics are being communicated within the company. Ongoing activities to continue to update and advance the risk-ranking model are also noted; in particular, potential opportunities to develop improved mechanistic and data-driven models and predictions of damage and failure likelihoods, based on pooled reliability data and information across the broader thermal recovery sector. 2 SPE-196081-MS
Colorado Gov. John Hickenlooper recently said the home explosion in Firestone, Colorado, that killed two people was a “freak accident.” But a new study by the Colorado School of Public Health indicates that accidents like this may not be so uncommon. The company that owns a gas well linked to a fatal home explosion in Colorado says it will permanently shut down that well and two others in the neighborhood. Anadarko Petroleum announced on its website on 16 May that it is permanently disconnecting 1-in.-diameter
Anadarko Petroleum wants a fleet of at least six vehicles with armor heavy enough to stop AK-47 bullets at its natural-gas project in Mozambique. And it needs them soon. Anadarko Petroleum said late on 30 June that it has tested more than 4,000 active oil and gas lines and plugged another 2,400 inactive ones per a state order issued after a fatal home explosion in Firestone, Colorado, in April. Two months after a Colorado home exploded near an Anadarko well, the reverberations are still rattling the oil industry, driving down driller shares and raising fears of a regulatory backlash. The company that owns a gas well linked to a fatal home explosion in Colorado says it will permanently shut down that well and two others in the neighborhood.
At its core, ESG investment involves gauging a company’s long-term, rather than short-term sustainability. Equinor is using its digital transformation to be more sustainable. The report, the first by a Chinese company in Saudi Arabia, outlines how Sinopec is fulfilling its economical, safety, environmental, and social responsibilities in Saudi Arabia. This paper presents the recent expansion of UNFC guidance to cover social and environmental effects and the further transformation of the system to make it a valuable tool in resource management for governments and businesses. On Earth Overshoot Day, humanity will have used nature’s resource budget for the entire year, according to the Global Footprint Network, an international sustainability organization. The ruling protects half a million acres of land in the Amazon forest on which the Waorani have lived for centuries from being earmarked for oil drilling, campaigners said. US Shale Firms Put Up $16.5 Million To Build West Texas Charter Schools Twenty top US energy companies agreed to contribute $16.5 million to open new schools in West Texas, where an influx of oil and gas workers have strained schools, roads, and other civic services.
Colorado regulators are moving to rein in Weld County in the era of Senate Bill 181, the law that gives more power to local governments to manage energy extraction. At issue is whether cities, counties, and towns can enact rules for drilling that are less restrictive than those at the state level. Right at the start of what will be at least a year-long endeavor, the state agency tasked with implementing a comprehensive new oil and gas law has hit the pause button to sort out conflicting messages from the public. Some environmentalists and community activists have demanded the commission stop issuing permits until the new rules are complete. New environmental regulations in Colorado have chilled investment in the state’s oil and gas fields as companies grapple with how local officials will respond to a law giving them more power to restrict energy production.
Diagenesis encompasses many processes after deposition that are responsible for the dynamic evolution of the pore system. Understanding the role of diagenetic events on the connectivity and distribution of pores and migration pathways is vital for proper characterization of the rock. In this study, we critically examine diagenetic signatures in the Woodford Shale focusing on rock-fluid interactions that cause precipitation and dissolution and assess their impact on reservoir quality via multi-physics models.
Evidence of diagenesis in shales have been extensively investigated by some of the authors in active and previous research. In this study, we focused on capturing the distribution of diagenetic features in the Woodford Shale using multiphysics models. Our methodology establishes a multi-disciplinary framework to incorporate multi-scale multi-physics data from various sources to investigate the impact of diagenesis on the alteration of petrophysical properties. Data incorporated include thin sections, scanning electron microscopy, and mineralogy. We first analyze and quantify the diagenetic signatures in the Woodford Shale. Examining the depositional history of the basin, mineralogy, the different pore types and the associated minerals. We then construct representative 3D pore-scale models and employ multi-component coupled fluid-flow and reactive-transport models to critically investigate these processes. Numerically, this entails concurrent solution of fluid-flow equations for pressures and fluxes, changes in fluid and mineral composition and conservation of solute mass for each component in the pore-network. We analyze porosity occlusion and the changes in migration pathways.
This framework allowed us to determine the influence of chemical diagenesis (precipitation and dissolution) processes on the pore structure, connectivity, and fluid flow, in order to quantify the reservoir quality. Our initial pore-scale simulation effort yields promising results and is able to reproduce major diagenetic features. Future research efforts will include incorporating complex reactive kinetics and geomechanical stress-strain modules in the pore scale simulator that will enable us to examine more complex scenarios.
Gas production from shale formations is growing, especially in the USA. However, the origin of shale gases remains poorly understood. The objective of this study is to interpret the origin of shale gases from around the world using recently revised gas genetic diagrams. We collected a large dataset of gas samples recovered from shale formations around the world and interpreted the origin of shale gases using recently revised gas genetic diagrams. The dataset includes >2000 gas samples from the USA, China, Canada, Saudi Arabia, Australia, Sweden, Poland, Argentina, United Kingdom and France. Both free gases collected at wellheads and desorbed gases from cores are included in the dataset. Shale gas samples come from >34 sedimentary basins and >65 different shale formations (plays) ranging in age from Proterozoic (Kyalla and Velkerri Formations, Australia) to Miocene (Monterey Formation, USA). The original data were presented in >80 publications and reports. We plotted molecular and isotopic properties of shale gases on the revised genetic diagrams and determined the origin of shale gases. Based on the distribution of shale gases within the genetic diagram of δ13C of methane (C1) versus C1/(C2+C3), most shale gases appear to have thermogenic origin. The majority of these thermogenic gases are late-mature (e.g., Marcellus Formation, USA and Wufeng-Longmaxi Formation, China) and mid-mature (associated with oil generation, e.g., Eagle Ford Formation, USA). Importantly, shales may contain early-mature thermogenic gases rarely found in conventional accumulations (e.g., T⊘yen Formation, Sweden and Colorado Formation, Canada). Some shale gases have secondary microbial origin, i.e., they originated from anaerobic biodegradation of oils. For example, gases from New Albany Formation and Antrim Formation (USA) have secondary microbial origin. Relatively few shale gases have primary microbial origin, and they often have some minor admixture of thermogenic gas (e.g., Nicolet Formation, Canada and Alum Formation, Sweden). Two other revised gas genetic plots based on δ2H and δ13C of methane and δ13C of CO2 support and enhance the above interpretation. Although shales that contain secondary microbial gas can be productive (e.g., New Albany Formation, USA), the resource-rich, highly productive and commercially successful shale plays contain thermogenic gas. Plays with late-mature thermogenic gas (e.g., Marcellus Formation, USA and Wufeng-Longmaxi Formation, China) appear to be most productive.