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Many methods exist for forecasting the production rate from unconventional reservoirs, but all have limitations. Recently, several publications have appeared relating the expected ultimate recovery (EUR) to the initial rate or the cumulative production after 3, 6, or 24 months. In the complete paper, these publications are reviewed, and their learnings extended, to several unconventional reservoirs. Work in 2018 studied 147 MFHWs covering many formations in the Permian Basin and a wide range of input variables and determined EUR using rate transient analysis, numerical simulation, and decline-curve analysis. The authors of that work compared the EUR with various cumulative production intervals (3, 6, 12, and 24 months) and concluded that the correlation with 3 months was poor; 24 months’ cumulative production was an accurate predictor of EUR but was not considered to be an early-enough predictor.
Chen, Ming (China University of Petroleum, China) | Zhang, Shicheng (China University of Petroleum, China) | Zhou, Tong (Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development, Sinopec) | Ma, Xinfang (China University of Petroleum, China) | Zou, Yushi (China University of Petroleum, China)
Creating uniform multiple fractures is a challenging task due to reservoir heterogeneity and stress shadow. Limited-entry perforation and in-stage diversion are commonly used to improve multifracture treatments. Many studies have investigated the mechanism of limited-entry perforation for multifracture treatments, but relatively few have focused on the in-stage diversion process. The design of in-stage diversion is usually through trial and error because of the lack of a simulator. In this study, we present a fully coupled planar 2D multifracture model for simulating the in-stage diversion process. The objective is to evaluate flux redistribution after diversion and optimize the dosage of diverters and diversion timing under different in-stage in-situ stress difference. Our model considers ball sealer allocation and solves flux redistribution after diversion through a fully coupled multifracture model. A supertimestepping explicit algorithm is adopted to solve the solid/fluid coupling equations efficiently. Multifracture fronts are captured by using tip asymptotes and an adaptive time-marching approach. The modeling results are validated against analytical solutions for a plane-strain Khristianovic-Geertsma de Klerk (KGD) model. A series of numerical simulations are conducted to investigate the multifracture growth under different in-stage diversion operations. Parametric studies reveal that the in-stage in-situ stress difference is a critical parameter for diversion designs. When the in-situ stress difference is larger than 2 MPa, the fracture in the high-stress zone can hardly be initiated before diversion for a general fracturing design. More ball sealers are required for the formations with higher in-stage in-situ stress difference. The diverting time should be earlier for formations with high in-stage stress differences as well. Adding more perforation holes in the zone with higher in-situ stress is recommended to achieve even flux distribution. The results of this study can help understand the multifracture growth mechanism during in-stage diversion and optimize the diversion design timely.
Zhu, Ziming (Colorado School of Mines) | Fang, Chao (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University) | Qiao, Rui (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University) | Yin, Xiaolong (Colorado School of Mines) | Ozkan, Erdal (Colorado School of Mines)
In nanoporous rocks, potential size/mobility exclusion and fluid–rock interactions in nanosized pores and pore throats can turn the rock into a semipermeable membrane, blocking or hindering the passage of certain molecules while allowing other molecules to pass freely. In this work, we conducted several experiments to investigate whether CO2 can mitigate the sieving effect on the hydrocarbon molecules flowing through Niobrara samples. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of adsorption equilibrium with and without CO2 were performed to help understand the trends observed in the experiments. The experimental procedure includes pumping liquid binary hydrocarbon mixtures (C10 and C17) of known compositions into Niobrara samples, collecting the effluents from the samples, and analyzing the compositions of the effluents. A specialized experimental setup that uses an in-line filter as a minicore holder was built for this investigation. Niobrara samples were cored and machined into 0.5-in. diameter and 0.7-in. length minicores. Hydrocarbon mixtures were injected into the minicores, and effluents were collected periodically and analyzed using gas chromatography (GC). After observing the sieving effect of the minicores, CO2 huff ‘n’ puff was performed at 600 psi, a pressure much lower than the miscibility pressure. CO2 was injected from the production side to soak the sample for a period, then the flow of the mixture was resumed, and effluents were analyzed using GC. Experimental results show that CO2 huff ‘n’ puff in several experiments noticeably mitigated the sieving of heavier components (C17). The observed increase in the fraction of C17 in the produced fluid can be either temporary or lasting. In most experiments, temporary increases in flow rates were also observed. MD simulation results suggest that for a calcite surface in equilibrium with a binary mixture of C10 and C17, more C17 molecules adsorb on the carbonate surface than the C10 molecules. Once CO2 molecules are added to the system, CO2 displaces C10 and C17 from calcite. Thus, the experimentally observed increase in the fraction of C17 can be attributed to the release of adsorbed C17. This study suggests that surface effects play a significant role in affecting flows and compositions of fluids in tight formations. In unconventional oil reservoirs, observed enhanced recovery from CO2 huff ‘n’ puff could be partly attributed to surface effects in addition to the recognized thermodynamic interaction mechanisms.
This one-day training event introduces completion, production, surveillance and reservoir engineers to the design of fiber-optic DTS (distributed temperature sensing) and DAS (distributed acoustic sensing) well installations. A basic understanding of the principles and benefits of DTS, DAS and surveillance monitoring technology, in general, is assumed. This course provides both an overview of water management and an in-depth look at critical issues related to sourcing (acquiring), reusing, recycling, and disposing of water in hydraulic fracturing operations. The course starts with a background of hydraulic fracturing operations and the different plays around North America. Options being used for transport, storage, reuse, and disposal are described for each of the different regions.
Kallesten, Emanuela (University of Stavanger, Norway) | Andersen, Pål Østebø (University of Stavanger, Norway) | Berawala, Dhruvit Satishchandra (University of Stavanger, Norway) | Korsnes, Reidar Inge (University of Stavanger, Norway) | Madland, Merete Vadla (University of Stavanger, Norway) | Omdal, Edvard (ConocoPhillips, Norway) | Zimmermann, Udo (University of Stavanger, Norway)
Understanding the effect of typical water-related improved oil recovery techniques is fundamental to the development of chalk reservoirs on the Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS). We investigate the contribution and interplay of key parameters influencing the reservoir’s flow and storativity properties, such as effective stresses, injecting fluid chemistry, and geomechanical deformation. This is done by developing a mathematical model that is applied to systematically interpret experimental data. The gained understanding is useful for improved prediction of permeability development during field life.
The model we present is for a fractured chalk core whereby fluids can flow through the matrix and fracture domains in parallel. The core is subject to a constant effective stress above the yield, resulting in time-dependent compaction (creep) of the matrix, while the fracture does not compact. Reactive brine injection causes enhanced compaction but also permeability alteration. This again causes a redistribution of injected flow between the two domains.
A previous version of the model parameterizing the relation between chemistry and compaction is here extended to quantify the effect on permeability and see the effect of flow in a fracture-matrix geometry. A vast set of experimental data were used to quantify the relations in the model and demonstrate its usefulness to interpret experimental data. Two outcrop chalk types (Aalborg and Liège) being tested at 130°C and various concentrations of Ca-Mg-Na-Cl brines are considered. However, assumptions were required, especially regarding the fracture behavior because directly representative data were not available.
The tests with inert injecting brine were used to quantify the effect of matrix and fracture mechanical compaction on permeability trends. To be able to explain the tests with reactive brine, an important finding is that permeability not only decreased because of enhanced porosity reduction but also because of a quantifiable chemistry-related process (dissolution/precipitation).
Sensitivity analyses were performed regarding varying fracture width, injection rate, and chemistry concentration to evaluate the effect on chemical creep compaction and permeability evolution in fractured cores. The model can be used to highlight parameters with great influence on the experimental results. An accurate quantification of such parameters will contribute to refining laboratory experiments and will provide valuable data for upscaling and field application.
Will Carbon Dioxide Injection In Shale Reservoirs Produce From The Shale Matrix, Natural Fractures, Or Hydraulic Fractures? Investigating The Performance Of Complex Fracture Systems Compared To Simple Fracture Systems Using Rta And Pta Techniques. What Are The Dominant Flow Regimes During Carbon Dioxide Propagation In Shale Reservoirs’ Matrix, Natural Fractures And Hydraulic Fractures? Can The Biot-willis Poroelastic Effective Stress Coefficient Be Determined Accurately For Different Rock Properties? A Practical Study Of The Influence Of Drill Solids On The Corrosion Of Downhole Tubulars When Using Brine Based Drilling Fluids.
Zhan, Lang (Shell International Exploration and Production Inc.) | Tokan-Lawal, Adenike (Shell Exploration and Production Co.) | Fair, Phillip (Shell International Exploration and Production Inc.) | Dombrowski, Robert (Shell International Exploration and Production Inc.) | Liu, Xin (Shell International Exploration and Production Inc.) | Almarza, Veronica (Shell Exploration and Production Co.) | Girardi, Alejandro Martin (Shell Exploration and Production Co.) | Li, Zhen (Shell Exploration and Production Co.) | Li, Robert (Shell Exploration and Production Co.) | Pilko, Martin (Shell Exploration and Production Co.) | Joost, Noah (Shell Exploration and Production Co.)
Hydraulic fractures play a central role in the performance of multistage fractured horizontal wells (MFHWs) in tight and shale reservoirs. Fracture conductivity variations and connection quality between fractures and wellbore (i.e., choking skins) strongly affect well productivity. However, convincing and high-quality evaluations of hydraulic fractures for these reservoirs are rare in literature because quantifying fracture properties requires decoupling them from fracture geometry and formation properties, a difficult task in most field conditions. A data gathering and hypothesis testing program was implemented using six multifractured horizontal wells in a pad in the Delaware Basin to improve our ability to reliably forecast well performance. A systematic approach utilizing production, shut-ins, and bottomhole pressure measurements (BHP) was conducted and used to evaluate the apparent flow capacity of hydraulic fractures. Two independent techniques were used in the data analyses to characterize the hydraulic fractures; namely, pressure transients for individual wells and significant well-to-well interference signals. Both techniques render similar decline rate interpretations for the sets of fracture conductivity/permeability from analysis of the pressure data, but there is a large difference in the uncertainty of the estimated results from these two methods.
The first method used a radial/linear flow regime in successive pressure buildups in three of the six wells. Simulations and theoretical analysis show that this flow regime allows decoupling fracture conductivity from fracture geometry and matrix properties. This flow regime yields the total apparent fracture conductivity (TAFC), which represents the lump sum effect of fracture conductivity. In addition, this technique characterizes the connection condition between the dominant fractures and borehole, which can be estimated from the early derivative horizontal line in pressure transient log-log diagnostic plots with minimum assumptions. Specifically, the estimated TAFC ranges from 1,140 to 1,630 md-ft at early time of well life to 525 to 855 md-ft after 100 to 139 days in production, or about a 45 to 61% reduction among these wells.
The second method uses time-lag of pulse interference responses between an active and observation well. With assumptions of low, mid, and high values of fracture porosity, fracture compressibility, and fluid viscosity, characteristic fracture permeability can be estimated. Because of the large uncertainty related to the assumed fracture porosity and fracture compressibility, the pulse interference method is not likely to deliver the same certainty range as successive pressure buildups using the radial/linear flow regime.
The results of this work provide a better understanding of the mechanisms of flow transport inside hydraulic fractures and at the connection between the hydraulic fractures and wellbore. The estimated TAFC and its significant decline help improve hydraulic fracturing designs and build representative reservoir models for more reliable well performance modeling and forecasting.
Bradenhead pressure, or sustained casing pressure, is pressure build up in the annular space between the surface casing and the next smaller diameter casing string within the wellhead. The objective of the test pad was to determine if increasing the physical flexibility of cement and rotating the casing string to increase displacement efficiency would help improve the cement bond to casing, decrease cement channeling, and help eliminate future bradenhead pressure accumulation. A twelve well pad housed three different cement slurries: four latex-type jobs, four resin jobs, and four foam jobs. A rotating cement head was used to enable mud circulation, dropping plugs, and rotating the string of casing during the cementing process on two of the four wells of each slurry type. For the production casing string, a threaded and coupled connection with a wedge thread profile was used to withstand the high torque experienced during rotation operations. Results were determined by evaluating pre-and post-stimulation logs along with continued bradenhead pressure monitoring. According to the outcomes from this test pad, recommendations were made on cementing practices within the Denver-Julesburg (DJ) Basin, based on regional gas-oil ratios (GOR). This interdisciplinary work determined whether the deployment of advanced cement slurries and casing rotation would help eliminate a potential health, safety, and environment (HSE) risk and help improve well integrity as related to bradenhead pressure.
In this study we compare real data from an Eagle Ford Shale huff ‘n’ puff (H&P) gas-injection pilot with reservoir simulation and tank material-balance calculations. The comparison is good and supports the conclusion that oil recovery from the Eagle Ford (and likely other shales) can be increased significantly using H&P.
For H&P to work, the injected gas and the in-situ oil in the shale must be contained vertically and laterally following hydraulic fracturing. Containment is critical for the success of H&P. Containment implies that the injected gas flows into the hydraulic fractures, penetrates the tight matrix, and does not escape or leak outside the target stimulated reservoir volume (SRV). Vertical and lateral containment exists in the Eagle Ford as demonstrated previously (Ramirez and Aguilera 2016) with an upside-down distribution of fluids: Natural gas is at the bottom of the structure, condensate in the middle, and oil at the top. Two different matching and forecasting approaches are used in this study: reservoir simulation and tank-material-balance calculations.
The results show a good history match of primary recovery and secondary recovery by H&P in the pilot well. The history match is good in the case of both reservoir simulation and tank material-balance calculations. Once a match is obtained, the simulation and material balance are used to forecast secondary recovery over a period of 10 years with sustained H&P injection of dry gas. The results indicate that dry-gas H&P can increase oil recovery from the Eagle Ford Shale significantly. Under favorable conditions, oil recovery can be doubled and even tripled over time compared with the primary recovery. The addition of heavier ends to the H&P gas injection can increase oil recovery even more, putting it on par with recoveries in conventional reservoirs. The benefit of H&P occurs in the case of both immiscible and miscible gas injection. The H&P benefits can likely be also obtained in other shale reservoirs with upside-down containment of dry gas, condensate, and oil.
The novelty of this work is the combined use of reservoir simulation and tank material-balance calculations to match the performance of an H&P gas-injection pilot in the Eagle Ford Shale of Texas. We conclude that oil recoveries can be increased significantly by H&P.
Foam flooding is an important method used to protect oil reservoirs and increase oil production. However, the research on foam fluid is generally focused on aqueous foam, and there are a few studies on the stability mechanism of oil-based foam. In this paper, a compound surfactant consisting of Span® 20 and a fluorochemical surfactant is determined as the formula for oil-based foam. The foam volume and half-life in the bulk phase are measured to be 275 mL and 302 seconds, respectively, at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The stability mechanism of oil-based foam is proposed by testing the interfacial tension (IFT) and interfacial viscoelasticity. The lowest IFT of 18.5 mN/m and the maximum viscoelasticity modulus of 16.8 mN/m appear at the concentration of 1.0 wt%, resulting in the most-stable oil-based foam. The effect of oil viscosity and temperature on the properties of oil-based foam is studied. The foam stability increases first and then decreases with the rising oil viscosity, and the stability decreases with rising temperature. The apparent viscosity of oil-based foam satisfies the power-law non-Newtonian properties, and this viscosity is much higher than that of the phases of oil and CO2. The flow of oil-based foam in porous media is studied through microscopic-visualization experiments. Bubble division, bubble merging, and bubble deformation occur during oil-based-foam flow in porous media. The oil-recovery efficiency of the oil-based-foam flooding is 78.3%, while the oil-recovery efficiency of CO2 flooding is only 28.2%. The oil recovery is enhanced because oil-based foam reduces CO2 mobility, inhibits gas channeling, and improves sweep efficiency. The results are meaningful for CO2 mobility control and for the application of foam flooding for enhanced oil recovery (EOR).