Learn more about training courses being offered. Learn more about training courses being offered. This course covers the fundamental principles concerning how hydraulic fracturing treatments can be used to stimulate oil and gas wells. It includes discussions on how to select wells for stimulation, what controls fracture propagation, fracture width, etc., how to develop data sets, and how to calculate fracture dimensions. The course also covers information concerning fracturing fluids, propping agents, and how to design and pump successful fracturing treatments. Learn more about training courses being offered. Current and future SPE Section and Student Chapter leaders are invited to engage and share. Every attendee leaves energised with a full list of ideas and a support network of fellow leaders. Those sections and student chapters actively participating in this workshop have consistently been recognized with awards as the best in SPE. SPE Cares is a global volunteering drive aimed at promoting, supporting and participating in community services at the SPE section and student chapter’s level. On its official launch this year at ATCE Dubai, SPE Cares will conduct a “Give a Ghaf” Tree Planting Programme to help preserve Ghaf’s cultural and ecological heritage. The Ghaf tree is an indigenous species, specific to UAE, Oman and Saudi Arabia. It is a drought tolerant, evergreen tree that can survive a harsh desert environment. The initiative not only aims to hold events/activities at ATCE, but also recognise community service that SPE members are already conducting in their respective student chapters and professional sections. The KEY Club, open daily, is an exclusive lounge for key SPE members. The lounge is open to those with 25 years or more of continuous membership, Century Club members, current and former SPE Board officers and directors, Honorary and Distinguished Members, as well as this year’s SPE International Award Winners and Distinguished Lecturers. DSATS (SPE’s Drilling Systems Automation Technical Section) will hold a half-day symposium featuring keynote presentations on urban automation. This symposium will explore technologies being used in developing smart cities through the automation of their infrastructure, transportation systems, energy distribution, water systems, street lighting, refuse collection, etc. These efforts rely on many of the same tools needed for drilling systems automation yielding increased efficiencies, lower maintenance and reduced emissions. Their knowledge and experience can guide the path being travelled by the oilfield drilling industry.
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In certain offshore shallow water production areas in cold regions the sea conditions are characterized by first year and potentially multi-year ice features. Unlike some other arctic regions, which are characterized by icebergs, there are regions where no icebergs occur. However, gouges are formed by rafted ice, pressure ridges, and multi-year ice from the polar pack that forms deep keels. Ice gouging of the seabed in these areas is caused by winds, currents and waves driving the ice sheet containing these ice keels.
As more reserves are being found in shallow water arctic and sub-arctic environments, there is a need to determine how best to develop these resources cost effectively. See
This paper discusses a novel design to best protect the subsea template and its mechanical equipment. Furthermore, this paper outlines the process undertaken for designing a subsea drilling and production template and protective structure by encasing the template within a protective structure that is placed in an armored excavation, or "Glory Hole", to prevent sand intrusion and ice keel penetration.
To protect a drilling and production template in shallow water, an enclosed structure was required to be embedded in the soil at the bottom of a Glory Hole with a full-time domed protection cover to protect from ice and soil entrance. Slotted doors allow jackup access to the template during drilling. Operation of the Wellheads contained within the Subsea Template is remotely controlled by a subsea cable containing electrical, hydraulic and fiber optic cables and tubes. The operation of the facilities can be monitored and controlled at the Command and Control Center located onshore and connected to the offshore template by the control cable.
Summary Aeromagnetic surveying with unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) is gaining momentum in the mineral exploration industry as various systems are emerging on the market. These systems are expected to provide high-resolution, small-size surveys flown at lower altitudes than traditional aircraft. One such system is the SkyLance UAS; a 20 kg rotary-wing system in its early stages of development that uses 8 battery-powered rotors for flight and carries a magnetic sensor mounted at the end of a long pole at the back of the system. An experimental aeromagnetic survey was flown by the SkyLance UAS over three prominent magnetic anomalies in Nash Creek, New Brunswick, Canada. The UAS was stable in flight, except during occasional wind gusts which created a transient magnetic noise, and acquired highly repeatable results.
Coalbed methane (CBM) has become an important source of clean energy in the recent decades worldwide including the US, China, Australia, India and Russia with more than 60 countries having different degrees of promising coal reserves. CBM reservoirs are distinguished from conventional reservoirs due to the major difference in the mechanism of gas storage and production of water. In CBM reservoirs, pores act as the major storage mechanism as gas is trapped and stored there and produced by means of dewatering and thus lowering the reservoir pressure. Free gas forms as the pressure is lowered leading to increased gas permeability of coal and thus increasing recovery. Microbial activity and thermal maturation of organic compounds are the main mechanisms of methane generation in lower-and-higher rank coals, respectively. Even though methane is an abundant and clean energy source, there are certain operational, technical and economic challenges involved in its production due its unique nature outlined above. Thus, a strong understanding of the parameters and uncertainties that influence the recovery is crucial.
Due to the fact that the organic materials that make up coals generally have a stronger affinity for CO2 than for methane, CO2 is used as an enhanced recovery method to displace methane as an enhanced coalbed methane recovery (ECBM) method. While there is no current comprehensive optimization study on the effects of such factors, ECBM has a very significant role in the future of energy as it means more energy out of natural gas while eliminating the adverse effects of greenhouse gases.
In this study, a standard SPE reservoir simulation model is used to study the factors influencing the recovery in coal bed methane reservoirs by investigating the significance of parameters including but not limited to porosity, adsorption capacity, fracture permeability along with coal density and irreducible water saturation.
The optimization results obtained by means of coupling a full-physics commercial numerical reservoir simulator with an optimization/uncertainty tool are presented outlining the different degrees of significance of these factors on production and ultimate recovery for better understanding of the phenomenon that will lead to more robust reservoir management decisions.
Integrated asset modeling (IAM) offers the oil industry several benefits. The next-generation reservoir simulators help achieve faster runtimes, insight into interaction between various components of a development, and can be used as an effective tool in detecting bottlenecks in a production system as well as a constant and more effective communication tool between various departments. IAM provides significant opportunities for optimization of very large or complex infrastructures and life-of-field analysis of production optimization scenarios.
Simultaneous modeling of surface and subsurface components helps reduce time and enhances efficiency during the decision-making process which eliminates the requirement for tedious, time-consuming work and iterations between separate solutions of reservoir and surface networks. Beyond this convenience, this technology makes it possible to reach more robust results more quickly using surface-subsurface coupling. The objective of this study is to outline the advantages and the challenges in using next-generation simulators on simulation of multiple reservoirs in integrated asset management.
Simultaneous simulation of multiple reservoirs adds another dimension of complexity to the process of integrated asset modeling. Several sub-reservoir models can be simulated simultaneously in large fields comprising sub-reservoirs with complex surface systems, which could otherwise become very tedious to handle. In this study, a next-generation reservoir simulator is coupled with an optimization and uncertainty tool that is used to optimize the net present value of the entire asset. Several constraints and bottlenecks in such a large system exist, all connected to one another. IAM proves useful in debottlenecking to increase efficiency of the thorough system. The strengths and difficulties associated with simultaneous simulation and optimization of multiple reservoirs are compared to the more conventional way of simulating the assets separately, thus illustrating the benefits of using next-generation reservoir simulators during optimization of multiple reservoirs.
The results show that simultaneous solution of the surface-subsurface coupling gives significantly faster results than that of a system that consists of separate solution of surface and subsurface. The speed difference becomes more significant when the number of reservoirs simulated is more than one. This study outlines the workflow in setting up the model, the CPU time for each component of the simulation, the explanation of each important item in this process to illustrate the incremental benefits of use of next-generation reservoir simulators in simulating multiple reservoirs with surface facilities taken into account.
Although the use of next-generation simulators are becoming more common, solid examples that illustrate the benefits of simultaneous simulation of multiple reservoirs with surface facilities under several different constraints like this study are important to prove the use of such tools where it is more convenient to carry out the optimization in a system that handles decision parameters and constraints simultaneously.
Conference review - 2015 Unconventional Resources Technology Conference
The pursuit of sweet spots in unconventional oil and gas plays is driving the creation of an emerging set of data-driven systems to measure, map, and predict how wells will perform in unconventional reservoirs.
Over 3 days at the recent Unconventional Resources Technology Conference in San Antonio, Texas, speakers outlined techniques used to create detailed, large-scale digital maps and models to navigate enormous formations where abrupt, unpredictable change is the norm. The conference was organized by SPE, the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, and the Society of Exploration Geophysicists.
The developing systems mesh together different sorts of information and experts with a dizzying array of skill sets. One paper described how to complete wells better using: “Advanced Petrophysical, Geological, Geophysical and Geomechanical Characterization” for more productive fracturing.
At the conference, there were presentations about unconventional field studies from BP, Callon Petroleum, ConocoPhillips, Devon Energy, Pioneer Natural Resources, and Talisman Energy, to name only companies that had done work in Texas.
The plunge in oil and gas prices that is driving layoffs and deep budget cuts by operators and service companies is pressuring unconventional oil producers to seek affordable ways to increase production and eliminate wasteful spending on unproductive drilling and fracturing.
“We are in an ever-changing, low-cost environment. We are looking for the most optimal, cost-effective methods,” said Nancy Zakhour, a completion engineer at Callon Petroleum, who worked for Schlumberger during the project. The comment was made during a presentation (SPE 178575) about a project done by Callon and Schlumberger using microseismic, pressure measurements while fracturing, core analysis, and mineral testing to confirm and add detail to 3D seismic testing to create data-rich, digital rock property maps.
That presentation hit on a common theme at the conference: finding ways to navigate reservoirs that are highly heterogeneous, which means conditions can change as abruptly and unexpectedly as the production of the wells drilled.
Post-fracture proppant flowback has been an unwanted result of high-pressure/high-temperature hard-rock fracturing in the Mahakam river delta for a number of years, causing abundant production-related issues coupled with additional operational risks for the operator.
Previous attempts to reduce proppant flowback with resin-coated proppant (RCP) have proven to be both unsuccessful and expensive due to the brittle nature of the hardened RCP and the extended cleanout periods associated with post-job fracture cleanout using RCP in the swamp environment, leading the operator to search for an alternative solution. In early 2012, the service company implemented a new proppant flowback control service for mid- to high-temperature wells. This service has been applied to the high-pressure/high-temperature fracturing campaign in the Mahakam delta with excellent results. The service consists of a resin-coated fiber additive coupled with technical support software for design and optimization purposes. The service was pioneered on four hydraulically fractured wells throughout 2012 and 2013.
From the four wells currently treated with the new proppant flowback control service, a total of 180 lbm of proppant has been recorded at surface production facilities. All of this proppant is known to be from well A (approximately 0.18% of total proppant placed during fracture treatment). Wells B, C, and D have all recorded zero proppant returned to date. None of the four wells shows any indication of perforation burial from proppant, and there has been no decline in production that can be attributed to proppant flowback.
Over the last 30 years, an operator has been developing several fields in the Mahakam river delta, in the province of East Kalimantan, Borneo, Indonesia (Fig. 1). The fields comprise a series of interbedded deltaic sandstones, shales, coals, and, locally, limestones, with gas-bearing sand bodies, typically with a total vertical depth of less than 12,000 ft. The majority of the wells are multizone gas producers completed with cemented tubing that are perforated and produced using a bottom-up strategy.
Hydraulic fracturing operations are currently performed in two separate fields within the Mahakam delta. The fracture targets in both cases are medium- to low-permeability gas reservoirs in hard-rock formations. In this case, this is defined as reservoirs with ~1.0 mD permeability and lower and a Young’s modulus of >4.0 Mpsi. The fracturing fluid utilized is a high-temperature organo-metallic crosslinked system with high-strength ceramic proppant that is used because of the reservoir and stress environment in the region.
The operator has endured proppant flowback following hydraulic fracturing in both fields. In some cases, this proppant flowback caused considerable production loss with production meeting only 20% of the full potential of the well. This is due to restrictive well choking after proppant detection, as seen in the Fig. 2 for well Z. There have been cases of both perforation burial, leading to well shut-in for cleanout and proppant production at surface. The potential of further lost production and extensive damage to surface necessitated a permanent solution to proppant flowback in the Mahakam delta.
Why now the focus on the various Wolfcamp plays? What strategies and techniques have proven useful in exploiting the potential of the Spraberry--and now, of the Wolfcamp source rock? Who are some of the players, where are they buying, where are they holding leases or developing them-- and how? According to J. Michael Party, vice president for Exploration Reliance Energy, writing in the May 2012 AAPG Explorer, "The early exploration efforts in the Permian Basin started in Mitchell County on the basin's eastern shelf, with a 10-barrel-a-day well [the W.H. Abrams No. 1 well] that opened the Westbrook field in 1920. This set off a frenzy of activity in the basin," due in large part to the availability of inexpensive leases from the University of Texas Land System. The true potential of the prolific and problematic Permian Basin, however, was not evident until the Santa Rita #1 well erupted on 28 May 1923. Spudded at a place called Texon in Reagan County, Texas, the project endured 21 months of cable-tool drilling that averaged less than 5 ft a day. After the Texon Oil and Land Company struck oil, the well produced until May 1990, and was named by Texas Monthly Magazine as the "Oil Well of the Century." This field, which came to be known as Big Lake, proved to be 4.5 sq miles.
Gandhi, Ankur (Anadarko Petroleum Corp) | Kubik, Peter (Anadarko Petroleum Corp) | Termina, Joe J. (Anadarko Petroleum Corp) | Rocque, Thuy (Anadarko Petroleum Corp) | Volkmar, Matthew (Anadarko Petroleum Corp)