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Relative permeability and capillary pressure defines relative permeabilities as dimensionless functions of saturation with values generally ranging between 0 and 1. Relative permeability is important for estimating the flow of reservoir fluids. The semilog scale of Figure 1 is convenient for reading the relative permeabilities less than 0.05. Although the curves are labeled "gas" and "oil" in these figures, the phase identity of a curve can be deduced without the labels. For example, the relative permeability that increases in the direction of increasing oil saturation must be the oil relative permeability. The endpoints of the relative permeabilities in Figs. 1 and 2 are defined by the critical gas saturation Sgc and the residual oil saturation Sor. Common names and symbols for some saturation endpoints are listed in Table 1.
Reservoir engineers use relative permeability and capillary pressure relationships for estimating the amount of oil and gas in a reservoir and for predicting the capacity for flow of oil, water, and gas throughout the life of the reservoir. Relative permeabilities and capillary pressure are complex functions of the structure and chemistry of the fluids and solids in a producing reservoir. As a result, they can vary from place to place in a reservoir. Most often, these relationships are obtained by measurements, but network models are emerging as viable routes for estimating capillary pressure and relative permeability functions. Before defining relative permeability and capillary pressure, let us briefly review the definition of permeability. Permeability represents the capacity for flow through porous material. It is defined by Darcy's law (without gravitational effects) as ....................(15.1) Darcy's law relates the flow rate q to the permeability k, cross-sectional area A, viscosity μ, pressure drop ΔP, and length L of the material. High permeability corresponds to increased capacity for flow. The dimensions of permeability are length squared, often expressed as darcies (1 darcy 0.987 10–8 cm2), millidarcies, or micrometers squared.
Chevron has confirmed that it and the Gorgon joint venture participants will proceed with the $4-billion Jansz-Io Compression (J-IC) project offshore Western Australia. Nigel Hearne, Chevron Eurasia Pacific exploration and production president, said J-IC represents Chevron's most significant capital investment in Australia since the sanctioning of the Gorgon Stage 2 project in 2018. "Using world-leading subsea compression technology, J-IC is positioned to maintain gas supply from the Jansz-Io field to the three existing LNG trains and domestic gas plant on Barrow Island," Hearne said. "This will maintain an important source of clean-burning natural gas to customers that will enable energy transitions in countries across the Asia Pacific region." A modification of the existing Gorgon development, J-IC will involve the construction and installation of a 27,000-tonne normally unattended floating field control station, approximately 6,500 tonnes of subsea compression infrastructure, and a 135-km submarine power cable linked to Barrow Island.
The Plover Formation is one of two reservoirs in the Ichthys field of the Australian North West Shelf. The objective of this study is to build multiple scenario-based models to optimize development planning in preparation for the upcoming production phase. The authors have integrated data and interpretations of thin sections, cores, well logs, and seismic data to create multiple geological concepts for the field and to identify key geological uncertainties. The Ichthys liquefied natural gas project is one of the world's largest and involves the development of a gas-condensate field in the Browse Basin. The field is approximately 220 km offshore Western Australia and covers an area of approximately 800 km2 with an average water depth of approximately 250 m.
This page provides SPE members access to the July 2021 issue -- digital, pdf, and online. Digital archive of issues back to January 2020 is available – scroll down from the current issue cover. These are the papers synopsized in JPT this month. They are available to SPE members only through 31 August 2021. There are also links to them at the bottom of each related synopsis.
This issue marks the debut of the Hydraulic Fracturing Operations feature in JPT. While hydraulic fracturing has long been a feature topic, this year, we are branching this major area of interest into both this feature and a Hydraulic Fracturing Modeling feature, which will appear in the November issue of the magazine. For this issue, reviewer Nabila Lazreq of ADNOC has selected three papers that reflect industry efforts to achieve new goals in production and sustainability. Paper 201450 investigates the potential of natural gas (NG) foam fracturing fluid to reduce the major water requirements seen in stimulation. The authors write that such requirements can be reduced up to 80% in some cases by the use of NG foams.
Carnarvon Petroleum has completed the farmout of 50% of the Buffalo project to Advance Energy PLC. On 17 December 2020, Carnarvon announced that Advance Energy would acquire 50% of the Buffalo project off the west coast of Australia by funding the drilling of the Buffalo-10 well up to $20 million on a free carry basis. Advance met this funding requirement and now has a 50% interest in the project. The well is on track to be drilled in late 2021, subject to securing a drilling rig, where the tendering process is already underway. Following the well, the joint venture will acquire development funding from third-party lenders and any additional funding will be provided by Advance as an interest-free loan.
Abstract Drilling challenging wells requires a combination of drilling analytics and comprehensive simulation to prevent poor drilling performance and avoid drilling issues for the upcoming drilling campaign. This work focuses on the capabilities of a drilling simulator that can simulate the directional drilling process with the use of actual field data for the training of students and professionals. This paper presents the results of simulating both rotating and sliding modes and successfully matching the rate of penetration and the trajectory of an S-type well. Monitored drilling data from the well were used to simulate the drilling process. These included weight on bit, revolutions per minute, flow rate, bit type, inclination and drilling fluid properties. The well was an S-type well with maximum inclination of 16 degrees. There were continuous variations from rotating to sliding mode, and the challenge was approached by classifying drilling data into intervals of 20 feet to obtain an appropriate resolution and efficient simulation. The simulator requires formation strength, pore and fracture pressures, and details of well lithology, thus simulating the actual drilling environment. The uniaxial compressive strength of the rock layer is calculated from p–wave velocity data from an offset field. Rock drillability is finally estimated as a function of the rock properties of the drilled layer, bit type and the values of the drilling parameters. It is then converted to rate of penetration and matched to actual data. Changes in the drilling parameters were followed as per the field data. The simulator reproduces the drilling process in real-time and allows the driller to make instantaneous changes to all drilling parameters. The simulator provides the rate of penetration, torque, standpipe pressure, and trajectory as output. This enables the user to have on-the-fly interference with the drilling process and allows him/her to modify any of the important drilling parameters. Thus, the user can determine the effect of such changes on the effectiveness of drilling, which can lead to effective drilling optimization. Certain intervals were investigated independently to give a more detailed analysis of the simulation outcome. Additional drilling data such as hook load and standpipe pressure were analyzed to determine and evaluate the drilling performance of a particular interval and to consider them in the optimization process. The resulting rate of penetration and well trajectory simulation results show an excellent match with field data. The simulation illustrates the continuous change between rotating and sliding mode as well as the accurate synchronous matching of the rate of penetration and trajectory. The results prove that the simulator is an excellent tool for students and professionals to simulate the drilling process prior to actual drilling of the next inclined well.
Thirty three years in the oil and gas industry and I never get tired of watching a sunset. This photo was taken from the helideck of the Ocean Onyx mobile offshore drilling unit which is currently drilling for Beach Energy, offshore Australia. How far south are we? Well if I was to get in a boat and follow the sun the first dry land I would hit is Argentina! Fortunately if I step in a helicopter and head north, it's only a 25 minute ride.
A large number of floating production, supply, and offloading units (FPSO) leases are set to expire in 2022 according to new analysis from energy market research and consultancy firm Westwood Global Energy Group. The average yearly expiring FPSO contract since 2015 has been around three; however by the end of next year, a potential of 30 units could become available. Westwood's Global Floating Production Systems Market Report report notes under a scenario where no contract extensions are taken on current leased FPSOs, 14 additional units would become available in 2022. Alternatively, if all available extension options were taken, nine units would come off contract, adding to the 16 units currently awaiting upgrade or redeployment. Of those coming off contract in 2022, 36% are 40 years old and are potential candidates for scrapping.