Africa (Sub-Sahara) Oil was discovered at the Ekales-1 wildcat well located in northern Kenya. The well has a potential net oil pay in the Auwerwer and Upper Lokone sandstone reservoirs of between 197 ft and 322 ft. Tullow (50%) is the operator in partnership with Africa Oil (50%). Drillstem tests on the Pweza-3 well offshore Tanzania flowed at a maximum rate of 67 MMscf/D of gas. The tests confirmed the excellent properties of the Tertiary-section reservoir. BG Group (60%) is the operator in partnership with Ophir Energy (40%). Asia Pacific China National Offshore Oil Corporation issued a tender to invite foreign firms to bid for oil and gas blocks in the east and south China Sea. Twenty-five offshore blocks will be offered, including 17 in the South China Sea, three in the East China Sea, and five in the Yellow and Bohai seas.
Africa (Sub-Sahara) Gas was discovered at two separate levels in the Mronge-1 well in Block 2 offshore Tanzania. The discovery is estimated at between 2 and 3 Tcf of natural gas in place, bringing Block 2's estimated total in-place volumes up to 17 to 20 Tcf. Statoil (65%) operates the Block 2 license on behalf of Tanzania Petroleum Development Corporation, and partners with ExxonMobil Exploration and Production Tanzania (35%). Oil was discovered at the Agete-1 exploration well on Block 13T in northern Kenya. The well, drilled to a total depth of 1929 m, encountered 330 ft of net oil pay in good-quality sandstone reservoirs. Tullow Oil (50%) is the operator with partner Africa Oil (50%). Asia Pacific Indonesia announced plans to offer 27 oil and gas blocks in 2014 in regular tenders and direct offers.
Africa (Sub-Sahara) A drillstem test was performed on the Zafarani-2 well--located about 80 km offshore southern Tanzania. Two separate intervals were tested, and the well flowed at a maximum of 66 MMscf/D of gas. Statoil (65%) is the operator, on behalf of Tanzania Petroleum Development Corporation, with partner ExxonMobil Exploration and Production Tanzania (35%). The FA-1 well--located in 600 m of water in the Foum Assaka license area offshore Morocco--was spudded. The well targets Eagle prospect Lower Cretaceous resources. Target depth is 4000 m. Kosmos Energy (29.9%) is the operator, with partners BP (26.4%),
Africa (Sub-Sahara) Eni finished a production test on its Minsala Marine 1 NFW well, located in Marine XII block, 35 km offshore The Republic of the Congo. During the test, the well delivered natural flow in excess of 5,000 B/D of 41 API crude and 14 MMcf/D of natural gas from a 37-m opened section of the discovery's 420-m column. Eni (65%) is operator, with state-owned partner SNPC (25%), and New Age (African Global Energy) Limited (10%). Asia Pacific CNOOC started natural gas production from the Panyu 34-1/35-1/35-2 project at the Pearl River Mouth basin in the South China Sea. Main production facilities for the three gas fields include one comprehensive platform, two sets of underwater production systems, and 13 producing wells. Two wells are producing a total of 21 MMcf/D of gas. The project is expected to reach peak production of 150 MMcf/D.
Africa (Sub-Sahara) Vaalco Energy started oil production from the Etame 12-H development well offshore Gabon. The well was drilled to a measured depth of approximately 3450 m and was targeting the recently discovered lower lobe of the Gamba reservoir. It was brought on line at a rate of 2,000 BOPD with no indication of hydrogen sulfide. Vaalco (28.07%) is the operator with partners Addax Petroleum (31.63%), Sasol (27.75%), Asia Pacific KrisEnergy started drilling the Rossukon-2 exploration well on Block G6/48 in the Gulf of Thailand, using the Key Gibraltar jackup rig. The well will reach a total depth at 5,462 ft and will test Early Miocene stacked fluvial sandstones on a broad structural high. The well will also appraise the Rossukon-1 reservoir, which produced 850 BOPD during tests.
Africa (Sub-Sahara) Aminex Petroleum Egypt (APE), a subsidiary of UK-based Aminex, discovered oil at its South Malak-2 (SM2) well on the West Esh el Mellaha-2 concession in Egypt. Tests showed flow rates of approximately 430 B/D of 40 API gravity crude oil. Based on the findings at SM2, a full field development program will be presented to the Egyptian authorities and the joint venture partners before commercial development. APE is the operator of the license with partner Groundstar Resources. Foxtrot International discovered oil and gas at its Marlin North-1 well in Block CI-27, offshore Cote d'Ivoire. A 22-m perforated section of a gas-bearing column in a Turonian interval flowed at a stabilized rate of 25 MMcf/D of gas and 150 B/D of condensate through a 46/64-in.
The Cooper Basin of Australia is challenged by strike-slip to reverse stress regimes, adversely affecting hydraulic fracturing treatments. In drilling, the high deviatory stress conditions increase borehole breakout, affect log acquisition and impact cementing job quality. The non-favourable stress conditions in conjunction with natural fracturing result in: complex fracturing (with shear and sub-vertical components); high near-wellbore pressure loss (NWBPL) values; and stimulation of lower permeability, low modulus intervals (e.g., carbonaceous shales, interbedded coals) in preference to the targeted and higher modulus, tight-gas sandstones. Typically, vertical wells have been employed in past completions of the Cooper Basin as well as in the offsetting areas to the case study in the Windorah Trough, Southwest Queensland.
We will present the results from two case study wells offsetting a previous vertical well where well trajectory, completion and fracture design changes were employed in an ongoing experiment to improve job execution for Patchawarra tight gas reservoir treatments in the Cooper Basin. The two wells were directionally deviated at 31° and 25° final inclinations from vertical with azimuth <10 deg from the maximum horizontal stress direction, as determined from offsetting well data. To better define sections with limited, poor or missing log data (because of difficult hole conditions), drilling data, logging while drilling (LWD) gamma ray data, openhole conventional and dipole sonic logs, along with prior 1D stress data were used with a machine learning model to improve stress profiling and reservoir characterization. Next, perforations were shot 0 and 180° phased along the wellbore and initial fluid viscosity was increased to better align the hydraulic fracture and reduce NWBPL, respectively. Finally, diagnostic fracture injection tests (DFIT) were performed in sections of varying moduli below and in the zone of interest in order to verify the horizontal strains and calibrate the final 1D stress profile prior to stimulating both wells.
The improved well and perforation alignment to the maximum horizontal stress direction has improved reservoir connection, lowered NWBPL in some cases, and in some cases improved fracture containment. Decreasing injection rates and minimizing perforated intervals has improved targeting of desired intervals; however, overall fracture widths remain low and continue to be sensitive to proppant sizing and concentrations with several screen outs experienced. This experimentation has resulted in short-term production improvements in the wells using 4- and 3-stage treatments relative to the offsetting vertical well where a 5-stage treatment was executed.
Unconventional gas exploration in the Cooper Basin, Australia, has historically concentrated on fracture stimulation of tight gas sandstones within mapped structural closures. In drilling these sandstones, and other clastic reservoir targets, it has been recognised for many years that the Permian coal measures of the Toolachee, Epsilon and Patchawarra Formations record high levels of gas, often in excess of 4000 units, encountered at depths between 2500 and 3500m. Unlike shallower Coal-Seam-Gas reservoirs, which rely on de-pressuristion through de-watering to liberate adsorbed gas from the kerogen surface, deep coals are a "dry" system in which the free gas component is produced via kerogen and fracture permeability.
However maintaining a consistent and commercial flow rate from deep coals alone remained enigmatic until the first dedicated fracture stimulation program of deep Permian coals was commenced in the Moomba Field in 2007. Understandings of Permian source-rock reservoirs, the roles of the coal type and rank on sorption capacity and porosity, the influence of effective pressure and depth on coal permeability and the interrelation of coal fracture permeability with in-situ stress and mechanical stratigraphy has now advanced.
The deep Permian coal fairway in the Patchawarra and Nappamerri Trough of the Cooper Basin has been defined and mapped using a generative potential approach within a comprehensive 3D basin model. Net coal thicknesses from log electro-facies for 879 wells has been combined with available well maturity, TOC, HI and kerogen kinetic data, and calibrated against corrected temperatures in a basin-wide Trinity retention model which incorporates 14 mapped regional horizons. Play fairways have been overlain with observations of in-situ stress direction and fracture orientations from 3D seismic curvature volumes, FMI data and stress states from Mechanical Earth Models (MEM).
Within the basin, this approach has defined a P50 in-place resource of 14.6 TCF of gas and a P10 of 20.7 TCF of gas within the deep coals of the Permian Toolachee, Epsilon and Patchawarra Formations in Senex permits, of which 8-11 TCF is within the North Patchawarra Trough. MEM's have also demonstrated that deep coal seams are consistently in a normal stress state and therefore provide excellent scope for both propagating and constraining vertical fracture growth. Work is now underway to define further those areas, within the mapped resource parameters, which provide the best opportunity to site pilot lateral wells for multi-stage fracture stimulation within deep coals.
Pan, Zhejun (CSIRO Energy) | Heryanto, Deasy (CSIRO Energy) | Down, David (CSIRO Energy) | Connell, Luke (CSIRO Energy) | Camilleri, Michael (CSIRO Energy) | Tan, Yuling (CSIRO Energy) | Sander, Regina (CSIRO Energy)
Cooper Basin is one of the most important onshore oil and gas producing basins in Australia. It also has the most prospective unconventional tight gas and shale gas opportunities. As tight sandstones or gas shales have low permeability, understanding the permeability behaviour is important for the production of these gas resources. In this work, tight sandstone and shale samples were obtained from an exploration well in the Cooper Basin, Australia, and they were cut into cubic samples with about 30 mm on each side using a wire saw. The cubic sample was then placed in a 3D printed membrane, therefore, permeability along each directional axis can be measured. Methane was used to characterise the permeability. Effects of gas pressure and effective stress were studied with gas pressure up to 9.5 MPa and effective stress up to 7.0 MPa. The results shows that the shale has strong permeability anisotropy at different direction. The sandstone sample also showed anisotropic behaviour, but not as significant as the shale. Finally, a reservoir simulator, SIMED II, is used to study the gas production from tight sandstone and shale using hydraulic fractured vertical and horizontal wells. The simulation results show that permeability plays a critical role in the gas production behaviour from tight sandstones and shales.
Hydraulic fracture stimulation of low permeability source rock-reservoirs is increasing in the industry and low-permeability, deeply buried coals, "Deep Coals," represent an underdeveloped resource in the Cooper Basin of South Australia. Numerous treatments have been performed with overall technical success but varied productivity. Thus, it was important to understand the potential hydraulic fracture conductivity in the Permian Deep Coal play by evaluating the key treatment variables affecting post-stimulation results. Proppant conductivity tests were conducted on samples from two preserved Deep Coal cores of differing thermal maturity under laboratory conditions, replicating reservoir conditions. Varying concentrations and mesh sizes of lightweight ceramic (LWP) and sand proppants were tested at 250 F. All tests were subject to closure stresses observed in the field, ranging from 2,000 psi to 10,000 psi, using representative hydraulic fracturing fluids. Results revealed a significant conductivity difference between the two coal thermal ranks due to variation in mechanical properties Varying proppant concentration tests revealed that effective conductivity at higher stresses occurs within a narrow window. This window is a balance between insufficiently low concentration resulting in significant conductivity loss, and excessive, nonlinear conductivity gains in higher concentrations. Results from these studies are integrated into a hydraulic fracture and reservoir stimulation modelling software to upscale the observed results versus the laboratory data. Finally, laboratory results helped explain trends for success in stimulation design based on observed post-frac, flow rates.