Rizzato, Paolo (Eni S.p.A.) | Castano, Daniele (Eni S.p.A.) | Moghadasi, Leili (Eni S.p.A.) | Renna, Dario (Eni S.p.A.) | Pisicchio, Patrizia (Eni S.p.A.) | Bartosek, Martin (Eni S.p.A.) | Suhardiman, Yohan (Eni Australia Ltd.) | Maxwell, Andrew (Eni Australia Ltd.)
This paper describes the results of an integrated reservoir study aimed at producing hydrocarbons through a sustainable development from a green High Temperature (HT) giant CO2-rich gas field in the Australian offshore. The development concept addressed the complex challenge of exploiting resources while minimizing the carbon impact.
In order to characterize the reservoir in the most detailed way and to describe the fluids behaviour, a 1.8 million active cells compositional model has been built. An analytical aquifer has been coupled in order to represent the boundary conditions of the area.
The faults system, interpreted on seismic data by geophysicists, has been included in the simulation model. The selected development plan includes the re-injection of the produced CO2 into the aquifer of the reservoir itself. The supercritical CO2-brine relative permeability curves at reservoir conditions have been provided by Eni laboratories, where the experiments were performed.
Therefore, a detailed model has been built with the purpose of: Defining producing well and CO2 injector well locations, numbers and phasing to evaluate expected CO2 injectivity and CO2 breakthrough issues; Optimizing the development concept through a risk analysis approach; Estimating the CO2-rich gas injectivity and storage capacity in the saline aquifer of the reservoir; Predicting the behavior of the CO2-rich gas after re-injection (breakthrough timing and plume migration); Maximizing the CO2 sequestration in the reservoir.
Defining producing well and CO2 injector well locations, numbers and phasing to evaluate expected CO2 injectivity and CO2 breakthrough issues;
Optimizing the development concept through a risk analysis approach;
Estimating the CO2-rich gas injectivity and storage capacity in the saline aquifer of the reservoir;
Predicting the behavior of the CO2-rich gas after re-injection (breakthrough timing and plume migration);
Maximizing the CO2 sequestration in the reservoir.
Asia Pacific Santos discovered gas with the Corvus-2 well in the Carnarvon Basin, offshore Western Australia. The well, located in permit WA-45-R, in which Santos has a 100% interest, reached a total depth of 3998 m. It intersected a gross interval of 638 m, one of the largest columns discovered across the North West Shelf. Wireline logging to date has confirmed 245 m of net hydrocarbon pay across the target reservoirs. Total SA and partners ExxonMobil and Oil Search have signed a gas agreement with the government of Papua New Guinea that defines the fiscal framework for the Papua LNG project in the country's Eastern Highlands. The plan involves construction of three 2.7-mtpa LNG trains on the existing PNG-LNG plant site at Caution Bay just west of Port Moresby. Total has 31.1% interest, ExxonMobil has 28.3% interest, and Oil Search has 17.7%.
Africa (Sub-Sahara) Eni discovered up to 250 million bbl of light oil in the Ndungu exploration prospect in Block 15/06 offshore Angola. A well in 1076 m of water reached TD of 4050 m and proved a single oil column of approximately 65 m with 45 m of net pay of 35 API oil. Well results indicate production capacity in excess of 10,000 B/D. Eni operates Block 15/06 with 36.8421% Joint venture partners are Sonangol P&P (36.8421%) and SSI Fifteen (26.3158%). Eni discovered gas and condensate on the Akoma prospect in CTP-Block 4 offshore Ghana. The Akoma-1X exploration well was drilled in 350 m of water approximately 50 km offshore and 12 km northwest of the FPSO John Agyekum Kufuor.
This course on Gas Field Development Planning: Offshore Projects covers significant gas projects dealing with the three key physical elements: reservoir, wells and facilities. The first day emphasises geoscience and subsurface aspects, including wells; while the second day considers projects more from a macro-point of view, including commercial, project management and facilities concepts. This course will give participants an understanding of all major aspects of gas field development planning and project management. The course is illustrated by a series of case histories and examples that demonstrate novel solutions to various project challenges. Participants will also be involved in two group exercises followed by discussions.
Copyright 2019 held jointly by the Society of Petrophysicists and Well Log Analysts (SPWLA) and the submitting authors. ABSTRACT Today, many machine learning techniques are regularly employed in petrophysical modelling such as cluster analysis, neural networks, fuzzy logic, self-organising maps, genetic algorithm, principal component analysis etc. While each of these methods has its strengths and weaknesses, one of the challenges to most of the existing techniques is how to best handle the variety of dynamic ranges present in petrophysical input data. Mixing input data with logarithmic variation (such as resistivity) and linear variation (such as gamma ray) while effectively balancing the weight of each variable can be particularly difficult to manage. DTA is conceived based on extensive research conducted in the field of CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics). This paper is focused on the application of DTA to petrophysics and its fundamental distinction from various other statistical methods adopted in the industry. Case studies are shown, predicting porosity and permeability for a variety of scenarios using the DTA method and other techniques. The results from the various methods are compared, and the robustness of DTA is illustrated. The example datasets are drawn from public databases within the Norwegian and Dutch sectors of the North Sea, and Western Australia, some of which have a rich set of input data including logs, core, and reservoir characterisation from which to build a model, while others have relatively sparse data available allowing for an analysis of the effectiveness of the method when both rich and poor training data are available. The paper concludes with recommendations on the best way to use DTA in real-time to predict porosity and permeability. INTRODUCTION The seismic shift in the data analytics landscape after the Macondo disaster has produced intensive focus on the accuracy and precision of prediction of pore pressure and petrophysical parameters.
Chullabrahm, Pattarapong (PTT Exploration and Production Public Company Ltd) | Saranyasoontorn, Korn (PTT Exploration and Production Public Company Ltd) | Svasti-xuto, Maythus (PTT Exploration and Production Public Company Ltd) | Trithipchatsakul, Chao (PTT Exploration and Production Public Company Ltd) | Sunderland, Damon (Arup Pty Ltd) | Ingvorsen, Peter (Arup Pty Ltd) | Madrigal, Sarah (Arup Pty Ltd) | McAndrew, Russell (Arup Pty Ltd)
This paper presents an integration of geology, geohazards, geophysics and geotechnical assessments for a design of an offshore gas production facility and an associated export pipeline. The gas field described in this paper is located off the North West coast of Australia in the Timor Sea in a water depth of approximately 130m.
Various resource development options were investigated during the Concept Select / pre-Front End Engineering Design (pre-FEED) phase of the project. These options included fixed and floating structures in the infield area and a 300km long export pipeline that ties into an existing gas trunkline connecting to an onshore processing plant.
To provide the necessary engineering due diligence to allow the project to progress further, several phases of geo-related investigations were undertaken to assess various geohazard challenges and foundation risks. Some of these challenges include a pipeline route traversing several steeply sloping seabed canyons, potential activation of turbidite sequences, and the presence of very soft carbonate sediments to calcarenite rock.
This paper describes these ground related challenges and how they were constrained through the geo-related investigations conducted, observations made and results obtained. Ground related challenges are described in two parts: Pre-FEED export pipeline routing reviews focusing on geohazard, geophysical and geotechnical considerations and ‘real time’ pipeline engineering Finite Element Analysis (FEA) performed offshore. Compared to normal practice, this non-standard offshore analysis allowed a preferred pipeline corridor to be identified during the survey with an informed understanding regarding feasibility and likely seabed intervention, thus optimising the field survey time and cost; and Staged acquisition and integration of infield geophysical and geotechnical data for developing high level assessments of foundation concepts.
Pre-FEED export pipeline routing reviews focusing on geohazard, geophysical and geotechnical considerations and ‘real time’ pipeline engineering Finite Element Analysis (FEA) performed offshore. Compared to normal practice, this non-standard offshore analysis allowed a preferred pipeline corridor to be identified during the survey with an informed understanding regarding feasibility and likely seabed intervention, thus optimising the field survey time and cost; and
Staged acquisition and integration of infield geophysical and geotechnical data for developing high level assessments of foundation concepts.
Key benefits of conducting an integrated approach to geo-related challenges on a complex site will also be presented in this paper.
The selection of completion equipment for artificial lift string for any field in the oil and gas industry is important for the safe and reliable operations of such a field. This is critical to the management and overall profitability of the oil and gas asset, especially in areas where artificial lift is the predominant means of water injection and hydrocarbon production. This paper focuses on why it is important to understand the saline subsurface and the total dissolved solids (TDS) of the environment in which the artificial lift completion is to be deployed and its impact on equipment selection.
High concentration of corrosive components in the well fluid such as hydrogen sulfide, chlorine and total dissolved solids makes the well fluid conducive for electron migration. Such migration causes heavy corrosion, especially when dissimilar metals are used in artificial lift well completions. Carbon steel tubulars and casing are easily affected by such corrosive composition and leads to premature failure of artificial lift completions, which poses safety and operational issues. This type of environment is intense in electrical submersible pump completed wells because of the electromagnetic field generated by the current passing through the electrical cable of the pump system.
A combination of field and laboratory data gathering, and analysis was utilized to determine the effect of the aggressive components of the produced fluid on electrical submersible pumps assembly. The contributions of the high total dissolved solids in the conductivity of the well fluid, and in the electrochemical process for metal corrosion were analyzed. It was evident from both forms and approaches utilized in the analysis that well fluid becomes an electrolyte that provided the desired path for electron flow, which was enhanced by the magnetic field of the ESP system cable.
This paper highlights the integration of three approaches of geochemical analysis of well effluent, Anodic Index differential and tubular internal coating in corrosion prevention and electric submersible pump runlife elongation in wells with corrosive compositions including high total dissolved solids.
Each module has a duration of two days with emphasis on different aspects of reservoir characterisation, the ultimate goal being the preparation of optimal formation and rock property data from core analysis and other data sources for the purpose of static geological modelling and dynamic reservoir simulation. Seminar style lectures are typically given each morning and participants put their learning into practice in the afternoons, utilising real field data (including their own if desired). For this purpose, specialised spreadsheets are utilised. "Intelligent" spreadsheets will be made available to course participants for their use in practical exercises – putting theory into practice. Course participants may also bring their own data, which they may use with the spreadsheets.
Advanced levels of depletion cause unexpected reduced pore pressures and thus reduced reservoir fracture gradients, presenting considerable drilling challenges in the Burgan Field in Kuwait. This can lead to matrix damage due to mud losses and result in borehole collapse due to the relative increase of effective stress concentration in the vicinity of the borehole. The area of the study showed high levels of non-productive time (NPT) as well as increased costs due to the drilling of unplanned sidetracks in highly deviated wells. LWD Penta-combo measurements including azimuthal sonic and formation pressure have been utilized to model fracture gradient and borehole collapse gradient in real-time, and proved effective at reducing risks and rig time by allowing proactive management of these challenges.
Borehole collapse in offset wells was analyzed to predict and simulate the wellbore stability of a planned well via a pre-drill geomechanics model prior to drilling the well. The well was planned with a high deviation of 56° and oil based mud. The salinity of the water phase was recognized as an essential factor in assessing wellbore stability risk with respect to shale-dependent time failure.
The integration of real-time LWD sonic and density data with formation pressure testing data in the geomechanics model for the first time in the 12 ¼-in. section showed excellent correlation and confirmed different levels of depletion in the reservoir. Uncertainty in the modeled fracture gradient was significantly reduced and effectively eliminated with the inclusion of real-time formation pore pressure testing data. This successful combination of modeled pore-pressure curves from the real-time LWD sonic data with the real-time formation pressure test data acquired while drilling in the same run is a first in Kuwait. A total of 15 pressure points were sampled in real time while drilling, allowing for proactive mud window optimization and borehole stability geomechanical analysis.
This real-time wellbore stability technique based on advanced LWD azimuthal acoustic technology in conjunction with real-time formation pressure testing while drilling has been developed with a unique process and workflow allowing the operator to drill the well with no significant wellbore stability issues and with the optimized shape of the borehole for a safe casing run. In addition, NPT was reduced to 0 hours and overall days per well were reduced significantly.
Behrenbruch, Peter (Bear and Brook Consulting) | Hoang, Tuan G (University of Adelaide) | Do Huu, Minh Triet (Bear and Brook Consulting) | Bui, Khang D (Bear and Brook Consulting) | Kennaird, Tony (Bear and Brook Consulting)
Dynamic reservoir simulation models are used to predict reservoir performance, and to forecast production and ultimate recovery. Such simulation models are also used to match historic production. The success of such models depends critically on optimal gridding, particularly vertical definition and the choice of rock parameters, especially relative permeability.
This paper compares simulation results as a function of utilising alternative relative permeability relationships as simulation input:
Unaltered laboratory data Modified Brooks-Corey ( Relationships based on the more recently derived two-phase Modified Carman-Kozeny (
Unaltered laboratory data
Modified Brooks-Corey (
Relationships based on the more recently derived two-phase Modified Carman-Kozeny (
For maximum clarity, comparisons are made on a single layer basis but covering a range of permeability and porosity values, and capillary pressure relationships are based on modelled lab data using the Modified Carman-Kozeny Purcell (
Study results show that very different production responses may be realised, depending on the validity of original lab data and choice of modelled relationships deployed. It is concluded that the use of the