When key geological scenario uncertainties, captured in multiple conceptual models, are combined with continuous parameters, the evaluation of a representative sample set quickly becomes unmanageable, laborious and too time consuming to execute. A workflow is presented that enables users to easily model conceptual as well as parametric uncertainties of the reservoir without the necessity of any complex scripting. The chain of models for all concepts is presented in one view, to provide overview of the key differences between concepts used. An ensemble of geologically sound samples can be created taking into account parameter dependencies and probabilities of concepts. The chain of models per concept can easily be (re)executed.
A case study is presented that consists of multiple concepts based on different hierarchical stratigraphic models in combination with different fault models, each of which with its own fluid- (defined contacts per compartment), grid- (sub-layering and areal resolution) and rock property models. Volumetric calculations are run on an ensemble to get static model observables like GRV, Pore Volume, Oil-In-Place, etc., reported by multiple sub-regions of the model in combination with a lease boundary. (When coupled with dynamic simulation, observables like ultimate recovery, break-through timing, etc. could also be obtained). As thousands of realizations were run concurrently, run time was reduced from weeks to hours. Results reveal the distribution and dependency of observables like GRV on top-structure-depth uncertainty and contact-level uncertainty. For in-place volumes the full suite of concepts and other parametric uncertainties including the stochastic uncertainties (i.e. seed) is analyzed. This also enables the identification of the key uncertainties that impact equity the most, which can be of great commercial value during equity negotiations. This workflow demonstrates how, with the power of Cloud computing, rigorous evaluation of multiple concepts combined with many parametric uncertainties has been achieved within practical turn-around times. As such it overcomes the prohibitive hurdles of the past that often have led to simplifications necessary to save time and effort. The result is better decision quality in resource development decisions.
The evidence from the produced-brine chemistry suggests that the Gyda field has experienced a variety of geochemical reactions caused by the high temperature and initial calcium (Ca) concentration, and so it is worth reviewing the produced-water data set and studying what in-situ geochemical reactions may be taking place.
Produced-brine-chemistry data from 16 wells in the Gyda field are plotted and analyzed in combination with general geological information and the reservoir description. A 1D reactive-transport model is developed to identify the possible geochemical reactions occurring within the reservoir triggered by seawater injection, and then extended with the inclusion of thermal modeling and also to be a 2D vertical-cross-section model.
Three possible classes of formation-water composition in different regions of the Gyda field have been identified by analysis of the produced-water data set. Anhydrite and barite precipitation are the two dominant mineral reactions taking place deep within the reservoir. Magnesium (Mg) stripping may be a result of multicomponent ion exchange (MIE), dolomite precipitation, or a combination of both. Reservoir temperature is lowered during coldwater injection. The solubility of anhydrite increases at lower temperature, and anhydrite will gradually dissolve in response to the movement of the temperature front, which is much slower than the formation/injection-water mixing front. The extent of mineral precipitation within the reservoir can be reduced by the heterogeneity; the modeling shows that the extent of ion stripping caused by mineral reactions in the reservoir is greatest when simulating a single uniform layer. Brine mixing and the occurrence of geochemical reactions caused by vertical mixing are not observable, even when assigning a high vertical permeability in a heterogeneous model.
Thermal modeling is included to evaluate the effect of nonisothermal processes and heat transport on the geochemical reactions, especially the anhydrite mineral reaction. We have investigated how the difference in horizontal permeability in the two layers affects brine mixing of formation and injection water and geochemical reactions.
The evidence from the produced brine chemistry suggests that the Gyda field has experienced a variety of geochemical reactions due to the high temperature and initial calcium concentration, and so it is worth reviewing the produced water dataset and studying what
Produced brine chemistry data from 16 wells in the Gyda field are plotted and analysed in combination with general geological information and the reservoir description. A one dimensional reactive transport model is developed to identify the possible geochemical reactions occurring within the reservoir triggered by seawater injection, then extended with the inclusion of thermal modelling and also to be a two dimensional vertical cross section model.
Three possible classes of formation water compositions in different regions of the Gyda field have been identified by analysis of the produced water dataset. Anhydrite and barite precipitation are the two dominant mineral reactions taking place deep within the reservoir. Magnesium stripping may be a result of multi-component ion exchange, dolomite precipitation or a combination of both. Reservoir temperature is lowered during cold water injection. The solubility of anhydrite increases at lower temperature, and anhydrite will gradually dissolve in response to the movement of the temperature front, which is much slower than the formation/injection water mixing front. The extent of mineral precipitation within the reservoir can be reduced by the heterogeneity; the modelling shows that the extent of ion stripping caused by mineral reactions in the reservoir is greatest when simulating a single uniform layer. Brine mixing and the occurrence of geochemical reactions due to vertical mixing are not observable, even when assigning a high vertical permeability in a heterogeneous model.
Thermal modelling is included to evaluate the effect of non-isothermal processes and heat transport on the geochemical reactions, especially the anhydrite mineral reaction. We have investigated how the difference in horizontal permeability in the two layers affects brine mixing of formation and injection water and geochemical reactions.
Drilling oil-producing lateral wells often requires the use of an efficient drill-in fluid (DIF). A properly designed reservoir DIF with precise control of its properties is essential to help prevent formation damage that can impede production. This paper discusses the custom use of a DIF to reduce damage while drilling a lateral well to help maximize productivity during later stages.
Oil-based mud (OBM) with density of approximately 67 lbf/ft3 was formulated based on reservoir data by optimizing the particle size distribution (PSD) of the bridging materials used to effectively bridge against the average pore throat sizes. It was tested in the laboratory at simulated reservoir conditions and applied in the field at the target well. The fluid was continuously monitored at the rig for PSD and fluid loss control using the particle plugging test (PPT). The hole cleaning and equivalent circulating density (ECD) were simulated with proprietary hydraulics software.
Using nondamaging specialty products that reduce fines and fluids invasion is an essential prerequisite for a reservoir DIF. This paper describes the case history of drilling a horizontal well in a sandstone formation in Saudi Arabia and also shows the successful use of a reservoir DIF on lateral wells. It presents an approach that helps minimize formation damage, mitigate differential sticking, and drill a hole without having any hole problems. Implementation of this optimized fluid in the field while using specially designed practices to maintain the quality of the DIF during drilling led to a higher level of production rates.
This paper concludes that close monitoring of mud properties, optimization of PSD design, and the use of nondamaging specialty products helps minimize fluid invasion and deliver maximized production.
Completion and intervention costs across the North Sea are at an all-time high and continue to challenge development economics; this has been exacerbated recently by a deteriorating oil price making cost-effective completion and intervention operations even more challenging. Typically at times such as these, the industry turns to the fracturing and stimulation process to maximise the return from existing assets and new wellbores. While this method continues to be feasible, increasingly this can only be achieved through challenging existing conventions and applying increasingly innovative approaches to the principal aspects and assumptions applied to the operations themselves; namely the deployment and the effectiveness of such operations in the field.
As the cost of a fracturing and stimulation execution mounts, due to numerous factors, including the efficiency of the service itself, available/economic well intervention capability, provision of sufficient accommodation (somewhat surprisingly/unhelpfully) and an ability to flow-back and clean-up in an efficient and effective manner. This paper will provide examples and case histories, across a number of our North Sea operations, which challenge and optimise each of these areas and demonstrate a number of mechanisms and approaches that have successfully been applied in order to reduce overall costs.
Some of the examples include a case history of the use of a boat (stimulation vessel) to boat (intervention vessel) stimulation approach, in order to eliminate secondary rig costs and thereby maximise the economics. Consideration of the use of a rig-based stimulation capability vs. extensive boat operations, efficient and cost effective well recompletion approaches and a suite of incremental improvements born out of continued North American solution development and deployment, such as the use of expandable packers and ball-drop matrix stimulations. Increasing the effectiveness of fracturing and stimulation (and maximising the productivity of each and every individual wellbore) is an obvious approach to improving economics and can be achieved in any number of ways. Again this paper will present a suite of examples and case histories of where this has already been achieved, across a number of our North Sea operations.
The current ‘perfect storm’, of a low oil-price environment combined with high industry contractual costs, is forcing all operators to become increasingly innovative in their pursuit of economic resource development across the North Sea. This paper presents a number of examples of innovation and cost-saving approaches that have been employed in order to achieve such economic intervention and provide further insight into the additional development potential and opportunity that may exist across this varied asset base.
This paper illustrates an innovative field-scale application of injecting condensate gas and recycling gas in Jake field, Sudan. This field has two production series, namely AG condensate gas pools and Bentiu oil pool from bottom to up, with the former 3520 ft. below the Bentiu reservoir and 1695 psi of initial reservoir pressure difference. Bentiu pool of Jake field is a medium crude oil (29 API) pool with strong aquifer support. Well productivity was 500 BOPD. Operator intended to inject high-pressure condensate gas into Bentiu pool to increase field output, whereas was confronted with following challenges: 1) injection of condensate gas in an easy-to-operate wellbore configuration; 2) optimization of injection parameters to achieve highest output; 3) suppress aquifer water breakthrough.
Field scale application had been optimized and implemented since 2010:1) High-pressure condensate gas had been injected into two updip crest Bentiu wells in the same well bore, following a huff-and-puff process, well output amounted 4,000 to 13,800 BOPD under natural flow; 2) 1/4 recycling gas volume from compressors was re-injected into 12 downdip wells at controllable pressure to avoid early water breakthrough; 3) The remaining recycling gas was utilized to gas-lift other five updip wells.
Oil producers were reduced from 19 to 7 comparing to original field development plan, while oil rate ascended from 22,000 to 30,000 BOPD, with watercut dropping to 7% from 15%, achieving a high offtake rate of 6%. Reservoir simulation indicated ultimate recovery factor is expected to be over 50% with such full-field gas injection.
Conclusions drawn from field scale injection of condensate gas and recycling gas were as follows:1) condensate gas injection in the same well bore was technically innovative and operationally robust; 2) recycled gas injection into downdip wells helped detain water breakthrough; 3) field scale application had evidenced outstanding success with high output and high offtake rate.
The giant Wafra Field is the largest field in the Partition Zone (PZ) between Saudi Arabia and Kuwait. The Cretaceous Wara reservoir represents one of the most prolific producing zones in the PZ. The Wara is a Cretaceous sequence of channel sands (fluvial/tidal) that have locally complex vertical and a stacking patterns. These sands are interpreted to have been deposited in a tidally influenced lower delta plain depositional environment in a low angle ramp setting characterized by low accommodation space. Stratigraphic complexity is high and in general, sandstone bodies are below seismic resolution. The Wafra Wara reservoir is a structural accumulation formed by a low amplitude anticline with 4-way dip closure, with some structural complexity at the reservoir level, consisting of normal faults with small displacements.
Although the Wafra Wara clastic reservoir is mature, new "sweet spots?? with original formation pressure were drilled recently in the middle of the development area, and there is also still significant remaining oil on the current margins of the field where deeper OWCs have recently been encountered. Increasing water cut and an active aquifer present some challenges to maintaining good oil production in the reservoir, mitigated by production optimization efforts and a rigorous surveillance program.
A comprehensive multidisciplinary study was performed to identify new infill well and workover opportunities within the most mature portion of the field to increase production and recovery. The team reviewed all existing data and performed detailed 3D-seismic interpretation to refine stratigraphy and structure, generate production attribute maps and to understand the production history and current state of the reservoir. Production, well-test data, cased-hole logs and analytical techniques were used to identify areas with by-passed oil and to predict initial rates and incremental recovery for infill wells. Deterministic and probabilistic forecasts were generated using field and offset well decline curve analysis. New opportunities were then ranked based on geological and engineering criteria.
This paper highlights the challenges and lessons learned from this integrated reservoir management study to define remaining oil and to identify opportunities to increase ultimate recovery.
This paper summarizes the application of data mining techniques and neural network multi-variable analysis to evaluate critical parameters impacting well performance and optimize hydraulic fracture treatment design for tight gas well completions in the Pinedale Anticline field in western Wyoming. Challenges and uncertainty associated with single variable analysis are discussed with consideration of the complexity of reservoir parameter variability and nonsequential coincident completion variable modifications. Neural network model development is summarized with emphasis on applications for well performance evaluation and hydraulic fracture treatment optimization. Results are presented from extensive trials performed during 2009 development activity at Pinedale.
One of the key issues in creating a good reservoir model in carbonate reservoirs is identifying the horizontal permeability conduits--"thief zones"--if there are any. In the Sabriyah field in Kuwait, dynamic measurements showed evidence of thief zones in the Lower Cretaceous (Albian) Mauddud formation. Early water breakthrough has occurred in some wells. Previous studies indicated that it was very challenging to detect the thinly layered thief zones using conventional openhole logs. This paper describes a method of recognizing the different types of thief zones in the Mauddud carbonate reservoirs using high-resolution image logs with calibration from core and dynamic measurements and by integrating image logs with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and conventional openhole logs.
The Mauddud carbonates are Early Albian in age and consist of grainstones, wackstones, and mudstones deposited in a ramp setting. Observations from production logging tools (PLTs) and production data indicated that there are a few thief zones in different levels within the vertical Mauddud sequence. A previous core study shows that the fractures in the Mauddud formation are short (<10 cm) and concentrated in diagenetically cemented layers. The fractured thin layers are believed to be the principal type of thief zone. Another type of thief zone is associated with better-developed vuggy porosity. This study shows that both fractured and vuggy porosity-related types of thief zones can potentially be detected through integration of high-resolution image logs with PLT, NMR, and conventional logs. In addition, methods of estimating fracture permeability and porosity-related permeability based on logs are also proposed. The log-estimated permeability determined using this approach fits better with the production profile and can then be used to evaluate the thief zones in a more quantitative manner.
Carbonate reservoirs are often very heterogeneous and their properties are frequently difficult to understand. The presence of faults and intense natural fractures further increases the complexity that becomes very challenging for reservoir management and field development. This is the case of the Shuaiba reservoir in Idd El Shargi North Dome (ISND) Field in offshore Qatar. The field was discovered in 1960 and was first produced in 1964. The oil is produced from multiple reservoirs, primarily carbonate, on a salt induced faulted anticline. After 1995, when Occidental Petroleum assumed the operatorship role under a Production Sharing Agreement with the State of Qatar, an extensive horizontal well drilling and waterflood campaign resulted in a substantial production increase from the primary Arab and Shuaiba reservoirs. This paper will focus on the Shuaiba development results. New technologies have been applied to effectively manage the Shuaiba waterflood and continuously increase the oil recovery factor in this complex reservoir.
The practical aspects of multi-component seismic technology described in this paper can be applied in any complex fractured reservoir for improving efficiency and increasing recovery.
During 2003-2005, Qatar Petroleum and Oxy acquired and processed a large 4C3D seismic survey over Idd El Shargi field (Fig.1). This technology uses multi-component phones and cross-spread acquisition geometry to record both compressional and shear (converted) waves. The survey ensured full azimuth coverage to offsets up to 3000 m, equivalent to an offset/depth ratio of two for the main target zone, achieving a nominal fold of 240 in the natural bin size, or a trace density of more than 2.7 million traces per square kilometer. The data were processed through a flow that carefully preserved the azimuthal anisotropy (Angerer et al, 2006).