|Theme||Visible||Selectable||Appearance||Zoom Range (now: 0)|
The International Gas Union's (IGU) recent report on world LNG markets found that the trade increased by only 1.4 mt to 356.1 mt compared to 2019 supported by increased exports from the US and Australia, together adding 13.4 mt of exports. Asia Pacific and Asia again imported the most volumes in 2020, together accounting for more than 70% of global LNG imports. Asia also accounted for the largest growth in imports in 2020--adding 9.5 mt of net LNG imports vs. 2019. While 20 mtpa in liquefaction capacity was brought on stream in 2020, all in the US, startup of several liquefaction trains in Russia, Indonesia, the US, and Malaysia were delayed as a result of the pandemic, according to the report. The only project that was sanctioned in 2020 was the 3.25-mtpa Energia Costa Azul facility in Mexico, and in early 2021 Qatar took final investment decision (FID) on four expansion trains totaling 32 mtpa.
ExxonMobil and Hess Corp. announced today their latest discovery offshore Guyana with the Longtail-3 well that is in the massive Stabroek Block. A net pay of 230 ft (70 m) was reported within hydrocarbon bearing reservoirs that are below the first intervals discovered by the Longtail-1 well drilled in 2018 about 2 miles to the south. The new discovery was drilled in a water depth of about 6,100 ft. Texas-based ExxonMobil said it added two drillships to its Guyana operations, bringing the total to six. The newly arrived assets are the Stena DrillMAX and the Noble Sam Croft which are now part of a 15-well drilling program in the Stabroek Block.
Petrobras has postponed first oil from its Mero 1 field via the FPSO Guanabara in the Santos Basin offshore Brazil due to delays with the production system. Startup at Mero 1 was originally expected in the fourth quarter of this year and is now expected to begin flowing during the first quarter of 2022 due to COVID-19 pandemic-related delays with the buildout of the production system in China. The FPSO will be installed in the Mero field, which belongs to the Libra Block, in the Santos Basin pre-salt area, with a processing capacity of 180,000 OPD. The field is operated by Petrobras (40%) in partnership with Shell Brasil Petróleo (20%), Total E&P (20%), CNODC Brasil Petróleo e Gás (10%), CNOOC Petroleum Brasil (10%), and Pré-Sal Petróleo, which is the contract manager.
Shell has contracted Seadrill's drillship West Tellus for a new drilling campaign offshore Brazil this year. The program is expected to start in BC-10 of the Campos Basin, where Shell operates the Parque das Conchas made up of the Abalone, Argonauta, and Ostra fields. BC-10 has produced more than 100 million bbl since oil first started flowing from the block in 2009. The drillship will be used on the third phase of BC-10 activity, which includes five additional production wells and two water-injection wells at the Massa and Argonauta O-Sul fields, with the wells connected to the Espirito Santo FPSO. Shell owns a 50% operating stake in BC-10.
Maersk Drilling has been awarded a contract with Karoon Energy Ltd. for the semisubmersible rig Maersk Developer to perform well intervention on four wells at the Baúna field offshore Brazil. The contract is expected to begin in the first half of 2022, with a firm duration of 110 days. The value of the contract is $34 million, including rig modifications and a mobilization fee. The contract contains options to add up to 150 days of drilling work at the Patola and Neon fields.
Abstract For several decades, completion design has been performed by the Field Development (FD) Team of several offshore fields in Abu Dhabi and installed with minimal Completion Engineering Team contribution. The demand of lower completion requirement has being increased to maximize well portfolio and enhance well life. The completion design is becoming more challenging and import for key to success. Since a companywide re-organisation occurred a dedicated Completion Engineering Department has been formed to develop a plan to standardise & optimise completions in order to reduce phase duration and NPT. A plan was approved that involved the hiring of a complete engineering department with expertise in many different types of completion and workover operations from all over the globe. This engineering team was brought together from other oil companies and service providers, and tasked with reviewing all current and future completion designs, operations procedures and completion equipment. This was done in order to identify suitability and gaps that were the cause of well construction NPT and identify processes that could be used to reduce or eliminate possible future Well Integrity problems. When the new organisation was formed completion phase NPT reached over 20%, however three month after the NPT had dropped to 11.1%. Within six months of the engineering team starting to be formed, completion phase duration has reduced by 20% and NPT has reduced by almost 50%. These results have been achieved with a concerted effort to maximize understanding of the equipment available to be deployed and develop standardized completion designs that meet the functional requirements of the Field Development Department. As the department has grown and moves forward, a greater involvement in the development of documents such as but not limited to: scope of work and technical requirements for procurement; further deepens the engineering-centric approach that will continue reducing completion phase duration contributing to the operator strategic goals. This paper will show how the newly formed engineering team has managed a complex change from a previous organisation to a new one. Whilst the previous completion design and execution methodology was seen to be successful in other operating companies, the successful engineering-centric approach has been proven within other national operator offshore concessions to reduce phase duration and NPT.
A large number of floating production, supply, and offloading units (FPSO) leases are set to expire in 2022 according to new analysis from energy market research and consultancy firm Westwood Global Energy Group. The average yearly expiring FPSO contract since 2015 has been around three; however by the end of next year, a potential of 30 units could become available. Westwood's Global Floating Production Systems Market Report report notes under a scenario where no contract extensions are taken on current leased FPSOs, 14 additional units would become available in 2022. Alternatively, if all available extension options were taken, nine units would come off contract, adding to the 16 units currently awaiting upgrade or redeployment. Of those coming off contract in 2022, 36% are 40 years old and are potential candidates for scrapping.
Abstract The Río Neuquén field is located thirteen miles north west of Neuquén city, between Neuquén and Río Negro provinces, Argentina. Historically it has been a conventional oil producer, but some years ago it was converted to a tight gas producer targeting deeper reservoirs. The targeted geological formations are Lajas, which is already a known tight gas producer in the Neuquén basin, and the less known overlaying Punta Rosada formation, which is the main objective of the current work. Punta Rosada presents a diverse lithology, including shaly intervals separating multiple stacked reservoirs that grade from fine-grained sandstones to conglomerates. The reservoir pressure can change from the normal hydrostatic gradient to up to 50% of overpressure, there is little evidence of movable water. The key well in this study has a comprehensive set of open hole logs, including NMR and pulsed-neutron spectroscopy data, and it is supported by a full core study over a 597ft section in Punta Rosada. Additionally, data from several offset wells were used, containing sidewall cores and complete sets of electrical logs. This allowed to develop rock-calibrated mineral models, adjusting the clay volume with X-ray diffraction data, porosity and permeability with confined core measurements, and link the logs interpretation to dominant pore throat radius models from MICP Purcell tests at 60,000 psi. Several water saturation models were tested attempting to adjust the irreducible water saturation with NMR and Purcell tests at reservoir conditions. As a result, three hydraulic units were defined and characterized, identifying a strong correlation with lithofacies observed in cores and image logs. A cluster analysis model allowed the propagation of the facies to the rest of the wells (50). Finally, lithofacies were distributed in a full-field 3D model, guided by an elastic seismic inversion. In the main key well, in addition to the open hole logs and core data, a cased hole pulsed neutron log (PNL) was also acquired , which was used to develop algorithms to generate synthetic pseudo open hole logs such as bulk density and resistivity, integrated with the spectroscopy mineralogical information and other PNL data to perform the petrophysical evaluation. This enables the option to evaluate wells in contingency situations where open hole logs are not possible or are too risky, and also in planned situations to replace the open hole data in infill wells, saving considerable drilling rig time to reduce costs during this field development phase. Additionally, the calibrated cased hole model can be used in old wells already drilled and cased in the Punta Rosada formation. This paper explores the integration of different core and log measurements and explains the development of rock-calibrated petrophysical and rock types models for open and cased hole logs addressing the characterization challenges found in tight gas sand reservoirs. The results of this study will be crucial to optimize the development of a new producing horizon in a mature field.
Gelvez, Camilo (The University of Texas at Austin) | Cedillo, Gerardo (BP America) | Soza, Eric (BP America) | Gonzalez, Doris (BP America) | Slotnick, Benjamin S. (BP America) | Moreno, Sol (BP America) | Pineda, Wilson (BP America) | Saidian, Milad (BP America) | Mullins, Oliver C. (Schlumberger) | Paul, Scott (Schlumberger) | Cañas, Jesus (Schlumberger) | Kulkarni, A lok (Schlumberger)
Abstract Reservoir Fluid Geodynamics (RFG) is a novel thermodynamic methodology that integrates pressure-volume-temperature (PVT), geochemical fingerprinting (GCFP) and reservoir geology with downhole fluid analysis (DFA) data to understand the evolution of reservoir fluids over geologic time. RFG enables the enhancement of reservoir description, estimation of reservoir fluid properties, and optimization of data acquisition plans. Deep-water reservoirs comprise multiple uncertainties in reservoir connectivity, viscous oil and flow assurance. This paper demonstrates the development of digital fluid sampling techniques for deep-water fields using the RFG workflow to predict fluid properties and distribution, to address compartmentalization uncertainties and flow assurance risks, as well as to redefine the well-logging program. Identifying key reservoir concerns is the first step during the implementation of the RFG workflow. Five questions define key reservoir concerns: Do optical density measurements explain the impact of biogenic methane on fluid behavior? Is it feasible to characterize baffling and fault compartmentalization? Can we predict reservoir fluid properties and assess flow assurance risks based on fluid behavior? Is it possible to identify all this in real time? How could we optimize future fluid sampling programs? The next step is to collect the available DFA data and to integrate it with the existing PVT and geochemistry datasets. This paper describes the evaluation of over 150 fluid sampling DFA measurements acquired during the operational history of a Gulf of Mexico field. Fluid behavior and optical density gradients are interpreted from a geological perspective to understand reservoir connectivity. A strong correlation between optical density and asphaltene content enables digital fluid sampling for different PVT and geochemical parameters. Lastly, a general correlation of optical density and asphaltene content is derived for multiple Gulf of Mexico oil fields. Optical density measurements support a consistent characterization of biogenic methane along the studied deep-water field, suggesting a relation to fluid migration and charging from deeper to shallower reservoirs. Likewise, optical density gradients and its integrated evaluation facilitate the identification of mass transport complex (MTC) baffles in the north part of the field and the characterization of fault compartments in the main reservoir sands. In addition, the RFG workflow reveals the difference in fluid behavior of sampled wells located in the area of a water injection project by identifying asphaltene clustering near the oil-water contact. The correlations of optical density and asphaltene content help to predict fluid properties and to estimate its uncertainty, benefiting risk assessment for asphaltenes deposits and flow assurance in deep water operations. Real time analysis of optical density measurements during fluid sampling permits the characterization of fluid properties and reservoir connectivity, optimizing future fluid sampling programs when fluid contamination reaches 10%. Ultimately, this innovative methodology conveys a general correlation to predict asphaltene content based on optical density measurements for deep-water reservoirs in the Gulf of Mexico, enabling the possibility to predict reservoir fluid properties in real time fluid sampling operations.
Liang, Qixuan (China University of Petroleum (East China)) | Zhang, Feng (China University of Petroleum (East China)) | Zhang, Xiaoyang (China University of Petroleum (East China)) | Chen, Qian (China University of Petroleum (East China)) | Fan, Jilin (China University of Petroleum (East China))
Abstract Unconventional oil and gas resources, such as tight oil and gas, have become indispensably succeeding energy sources in nowadays. At the stage of exploration, gas saturation is essential for the evaluation of tight formation, which can provide the key parameters for reserves calculation and development plans making. Conventional logging technologies including acoustic logging and resistivity logging have played a role in gas formation identification and evaluation. Besides, inelastic and capture gamma energy spectrum or time spectrum from pulsed neutron logging tools with NaI, BGO, LaCl3, or LaBr3 detectors are used to realize the quantitative evaluation of gas saturation. With the development of nuclear technology, the new detector, called CLYC (Cs2LiYCl6:Ce), can simultaneously measure the signals of gamma ray and thermal neutron, providing a new mean for gas saturation evaluation use pulsed neutron logging technique. The CLYC scintillation crystal with a density of 3.31g/cm has an energy resolution in the order of 4%-5% (0.662MeV), and its light output efficiency of gamma ray and neutron are 20000 photons/MeV and 70500 photons/MeV. Meanwhile, its excellent temperature characteristics in the range from -30℃ to 180℃ can fit the downhole environment. Consisting of the D-T neutron source and CLYC detector, the pulsed neutron logging system is designed in this paper, in which the burst gate is 0 to 40 microseconds and the capture gate is 50 to 100 microseconds. To evaluate gas saturation, this system combines the inelastic gamma ray and thermal neutron recorded from the burst gate and the capture gate. The new pulsed neutron logging tool consists of two LaBr3 detectors and a CLYC detector, and the spacing of the CLYC detector is 75cm. In addition to the conventional C/O and Sigma measurement functions, the new instrument can also realize the quantitative evaluation of gas saturation by the CLYC detector. The inelastic gamma, capture gamma, and thermal neutron distribution in long-detector are simulated by the Monte Carlo method under the condition of tight gas saturated formation with porosity from 3% to 20%. Based on the spatial flux distribution characteristic of inelastic gamma and thermal neutron, the new parameter (RGTH) is defined as the ratio of inelastic gamma counts to thermal neutron counts from the CLYC detector to calculate gas saturation. The results imply that RGTH is positively correlated with porosity and negatively correlated with gas saturation, and the gas and water dynamic range is about 36% under the condition of a sandstone formation with 10% porosity. Different lithology has different RGTH benchmark values. RGTH is not affected by the yield of the neutron source and water salinity, and the subtract coefficient can be accurately determined by the time spectrum of the thermal neutron to acquire the pure inelastic gamma. A tight lime-bearing sandstone formation with 5% porosity has been set by MCNP to check validity, the absolute error of gas saturation calculated by RGTH is less than 5%.