This paper presents a diagnostic workflow to understand and implement rock and fluid modeling in a diagenetically heterogeneous and hydrodynamically pressured Middle East carbonate field. The workflow allows interactive field data integration, provides guidance for reservoir property distribution and fluid contact generation in order to improve reserves and forecasting estimation. The workflow is useful to a reservoir modeler in QA/QC role and in this case it proves particularly applicable in an organization with constrained resources during the farm-in process. The workflow runs on numerical methods within the static model to avoid database discrepancy during the diagnostic process. Using the core (CCAL, SCAL), log and pressure database, the geoscientist can assess subsurface modeling outputs from the simplest to more complex deterministic scenarios. The process aims to minimize the discrepancy between data input and model output while continuously honoring the data, maintaining realistic correlations (e.g. between static permeability and water saturation) and respecting inherent uncertainty.
Using a data-rich Middle East carbonate reservoir, the pre- and post-diagnostic comparison of 3D modeled reservoir properties to the input data are demonstrated. Diagnostic steps have helped to understand potential subsurface scenarios and thus minimize the discrepancy post exercise. The value of the workflow is its ability to pinpoint the key uncertainties in rock and fluid modeling from the field’s vast dataset in a shorter diagnostic time. The application of the workflow in this carbonate reservoir case study increases the importance of geological and property driven rock type classification and its 3D distribution in matching the water saturation profile. This proved particularly challenging in this case study due to the field’s compartmentalization - fluid contact scenario.
The high CO2 content of Brazil’s pre-salt fields, which may reach values from 20% to 44% molar, presents both a challenge as well as an opportunity. CO2 stripped from the produced gas cannot be released into the atmosphere due to environmental restrictions. Therefore, the whole amount of CO2 produced should be continuously reinjected into the reservoir. This work investigates the effect of CO2 content on the low salinity water alternating CO2 injection technique (CO2LSWAG) using a commercial compositional reservoir simulator. In these field-scale simulations, CO2 is stripped from the produced gas and reinjected into the reservoir. Primary oil recovery methods such as CO2 flooding and LSW flooding are also simulated. Chemical reactions between CO2 and the minerals present in the reservoir are modeled. Wettability change is assumed to be the main mechanism for improved oil recovery due to low salinity water injection. Compositional simulations of CO2 injection usually assume a constant injected gas rate. In this case, CO2 is supposed to come from an external source. In many petroleum reservoirs this assumption is true. Three factors are assessed in the present work. The first one is the natural reservoir pressure, which is the main driving force in primary production. The second factor is the amount of CO2 available for injection. The third one is the wettability change promoted by the reaction involving CO2. It is shown that in primary production, higher CO2 content leads to quicker depletion of the natural energy of the reservoir, leading to lower oil recovery. Nevertheless, higher CO2 content also means that more gas is available for reinjection, potentially leading to increased oil production. Finally, as CO2 reacts with minerals it promotes a change in wettability from an oil-wet to a water-wet state. It is shown that the CO2 content is an important variable to be assessed in a high CO2 content reservoir. Optimal injection practices must take these three aspects into consideration.
With the advent of high-resolution methods to predict hydraulic fracture geometry and subsequent production forecasting, characterization of productive shale volume and evaluating completion design economics through science-based forward modeling becomes possible. However, operationalizing a simulation-based workflow to optimize design to keep up with the field operation schedule remains the biggest challenge owing to the slow model-to-design turnaround cycle. The objective of this project is to apply the ensemble learning-based model concept to this issue and, for the purpose of completion design, we summarize the numerical-model-centric unconventional workflow as a process that ultimately models production from a well pad (of multiple horizontal laterals) as a function of completion design parameters. After the development and validation and analysis of the surrogate model is completed, the model can be used in the predictive mode to respond to the "what if" questions that are raised by the reservoir/completion management team.
Valencia, Juan D. (Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Exergy - Modeling and Analytics) | Mejía, Juan M. (Universidad Nacional de Colombia) | Ocampo, Alonso (GaStimTechnologies) | Restrepo, Alejandro (Equion Energía)
This paper address the numerical simulation of the chemically enhanced gas injection technology (ChEGas-EOR) at core and reservoir scales. In this technique, a liquid chemical solution, having engineered properties, is sprayed along with the gas stream. The mist travels through the wellbore and further introduced in the reservoir. Previous lab tests, pilot studies in light & intermediate oil reservoirs indicate that the application of CheGas-EOR allows for a reduction in operational costs, increases the chemical penetration radii and decreases the retention rate in the rock. However, the associated uncertainty is still too high to develop this process on a productive scale. In this work we use a developed phenomenological model to build a tool that assist in design and evaluation of Chemical Gas EOR operations aiming to reduce the uncertainties and optimize oil recovery.
We developed a mathematical model, based on the most important transport and surface phenomena. Non-equilibrium mass transfer between phases during the interception of the chemical solution droplets with the liquid phases. Active chemical concentration in miscible liquid phases is much lower than liquid-based chemical injection opperations. As a consequence, dissolution and adsorption rate of active chemicals with reservoir rocks are slow. The model is base on the extended black-oil model formulation coupled to local mass balance equations of active chemicals. Non-equilibrium mass transfer processes are represented with interception, dissolution and a first order kinetic sorption models.
The model was adjusted and then validated using experimental data from core-.floodint tests. Good agreement of the simulations results with experimental observations were obtained. The model can predict the relevant behavior of the disperse chemical injection in the gas phase in porous media. Also, well injections simulations at reservoir scale using the matched parameters from laboratory, reproduced pilot field results. Simulation experiments predict that the CheGasEOR process can increased substantially the oil recovery factor.
For the first time, a model for disperse chemical injection for EOR applications is developed and validated at core and reservoir scale. The simulation model allows the evaluation of this technology at different scales. Therefore, it is possible to use it to optimize operating conditions and perform sensitivity analysis for field applications.
Mendoza, Maria (Petroamazonas EP) | Cevallos, Gonzalo (Petroamazonas EP) | Molina, Edison (Petroamazonas EP) | Piñeiros, Silvia (Petroamazonas EP) | Torres, Water (Petroamazonas EP) | Garrido, Johnny (Petroamazonas EP) | Gutierrez, Ruben (Schlumberger) | Fonseca, Claudio (Schlumberger) | Cortez, Oscar (Schlumberger) | Fernandez, Edgar (Schlumberger) | Paladines, Agustin (Schlumberger)
An Ecuadorian lease ("Bloque 61") composed of 14 oil fields represents the most productive asset in the country. It contains 5.3 billion barrels of original oil in place (OOIP) distributed in four complex producing reservoirs. After 44 years of production and with a decline rate of 31% per year, maintaining the production from these fields represents an important challenge from the subsurface and execution viewpoints. In December 2015, an integrated service contract was signed with the national oil company (NOC) with a fixed investment for the development of the entire lease.
The challenge of the project was to maximize the value of a depleted asset through the framework of the c ontract. This mature asset has many opportunities to boost production and reserves by implementing an aggressive fit-for purpose development. The opportunities screened and implemented in only 12 months consisted of reaching new oil in appraisal and exploration areas and redevelopment of mature zones with horizontal and infill drilling with mainly reentry wells. Most valuable of all was the implementation of six waterflooding projects. All of these were executed in the Amazon rainforest where there is a pressing need to reduce environmental and social impact.
This exploitation philosophy has successfully changed the asset's production decline, ramping production up from 60,000 BOPD to 80,000 BOPD. This integrated field development plan has amalgamated several technologies with a specific objective of optimizing the value of the asset. The long term was assessed through the drilling of exploration and appraisal opportunities where prospective resources were recategorized to reserves. The medium term was tackled by drilling horizontal wells and re-entries to optimize sweep efficiency and implementing water injection in the main structures. The short term was directed by executing workovers in areas where the water injection was in place. The asset value was recovered and increased as shown by a reserve's replacement ratio of 1.13.
This approach will serve as a framework for the future integrated development of these types of mature assets. The technologies implemented have helped accelerating and optimizing the conceptualization and execution of the project; a few of these include high-resolution reservoir simulation, dumpflooding, closed-loop water source system, and dual-string completions. The integration of strong domain expertise, coupled with advanced technologies and workflows, has led to outstanding results.
This seminar will teach participants how to identify, evaluate, and quantify risk and uncertainty in everyday oil and gas economic situations. It reviews the development of pragmatic tools, methods, and understandings for professionals that are applicable to companies of all sizes. The seminar also briefly reviews statistics, the relationship between risk and return, and hedging and future markets. Strategic thinking and planning are key elements in an organisation’s journey to maximise value to shareholders, customers, and employees. Through this workshop, attendees will go through the different processes involved in strategic planning including the elements of organisational SWOT, business scenario and options development, elaboration of strategic options and communication to stakeholders.
The resistivity index (RI) of Fontainebleau and Bentheimer sandstones was investigated at ambient and reservoir pressures down to low water saturations. The RI measurements show that both sandstones display Archie behavior at elevated pressure. This paper presents experimental and field-case studies with a sandstone-acidizing treatment designed to retard the hydrofluoric acid reaction rate and enable single-stage treatment. This paper describes a matrix-acidizing campaign executed successfully in the Gulf of Cambay on the west coast of India.
Petrobras says it can produce oil for a lower break-even price than onshore shale plays, including the Permian Basin. Brazil’s offshore sector has cut the cost of deepwater production but comparisons based on break-even prices are slippery. It's Hard To Make Money in Deepwater, Even With Billions of Barrels To Produce Low oil prices have made the goal of this Petrobras project and its four partners to lower the break-even price of operating to USD 35/bbl.
Make or Breakeven: Is Unconventional Oil Production Getting More Efficient? If the benchmark oil price is $10/bbl higher than the breakeven price for production that means companies are making good money, right? Maybe, but it’s hard to know what goes into a breakeven price. Petrobras says it can produce oil for a lower break-even price than onshore shale plays, including the Permian Basin. Brazil’s offshore sector has cut the cost of deepwater production but comparisons based on break-even prices are slippery.
Total is determined to push ahead with its plans to drill for oil in the Amazon basin, it said on 1 June as Greenpeace activists interrupted its annual general meeting in protest over the project. An audit of the Martin Linge project was conducted by the Petroleum Safety Authority Norway (PSA) on 28–30 March 2017. This was directed at technical safety, electrical equipment, maintenance management, and Total’s own follow-up of technical barriers during the commissioning phase.