It will provide re ... Harkand has secured a USD 5 million contract from Swiber Offshore Mexico to perform saturation divin ... Two Bumi Armada subsidiary companies secured USD 300 million worth of contracts from ElectroGas for ... Amec Foster Wheeler has been awarded a contract by BP worth more than USD 73 million. Tam International, which provides inflatable and swellable packers for the oil and gas industry, has ... Sanchez Energy closed a deal with a subsidiary of Sanchez Production Partners to sell wellbore and a ... Penn West Petroleum has entered into a USD 321 million agreement with Freehold Royalties to sell an ... Bonterra Energy has acquired Cardium formation-focused assets in the Pembina area of Alberta, Canada ... Petrobras has sold its assets in Argentina’s Austral basin to Compañia General de Combustibles for U ... Pemex signed an agreement worth USD 1 billion with private equity firmFirst Reserve to jointly inves ... Gulfport Energy entered into an agreement to acquire Paloma Partners III for USD 300 million. Apache sold its 13% stake in the Wheatstone LNG terminal in Western Australia and 50% interest in th ... Oil and gas safety company Secorp opened a new office in Hobbs, New Mexico. Bill Barrett Corp. has signed agreements with several undisclosed recipients for the sale of the maj ... Encana said it will sell its remaining 54% stake in PrairieSky Royalty via a USD-2.4-billion Cardinal Energy entered into an agreement with an unnamed seller to acquire assets whose total daily ... Petrobras has awarded a contract, worth USD 465 million over a period of 5 years, to Aker Oilfield S ... CGG received contracts for the 3D seismic acquisition of four surveys using its marine broadband tec ... IKM Subsea, a subsidiary of IKM Group, has been awarded a contract by Eni Indonesia to provide remot ... OneSubsea, Schlumberger, and Helix Energy Solutions signed a letter of intent to develop technologie ... Premier Hytemp has committed to opening a USD-20-million, 67,000-ft2 precision engineering facility ... Expro has constructed a new 20,000‑m2 facility in Macaé, Brazil.
Africa (Sub-Sahara) The drillship Ocean Rig Athena is preparing to drill appraisal and exploration wells offshore Senegal for a joint venture (JV) led by Cairn Energy. Two wells will appraise the SNE discovery, which was ranked by IHS CERA as the world's largest for oil last year. An exploration well will also be drilled in the Bellatrix prospect, for which mapping has indicated a potential 168 million bbl of oil resources. Cairn holds a 40% interest in the JV, with remaining interests held by ConocoPhillips (35%), FAR (15%), and Petrosen (10%). The Ksiri West-A exploration well drilled by Circle Oil on the Sebou permit onshore Morocco has flowed gas at a rate of 8 MMcf/D following tests. It is being readied for production.
The Magallanes Basin of Southern Chile is the southern-most hydrocarbon-producing basin in the world. The main source of the gas production in this basin is from the Glauconite Formation. The Glauconite is a clay and feldspar rich formation with extremely low permeability requiring hydraulic fracturing to recover the hydrocarbons and enhance well performance. In this project, fracture simulations with a fully three-dimensional finite element model were integrated with statistical analysis and used in an optimization study of hydraulic fracturing in the Glauconite Formation.
The mechanical earth model was used to estimate the in-situ stress contrast, Young's Modulus, and leak-off profile with depth. Tri-axial compression tests of core were used to validate static Young's Modulus estimates while mini-frac data and fracture stimulation data were history matched and used to validate and/or modify in-situ stress and leak-off profiles with depth. The history matched treatments were then used to populate the database with the resulting hydraulic and propped fracture dimensions. Ultimately, a database that includes in-situ stress, stress contrast, Young's Modulus, leak-off, propped and un-propped fracture dimensions (length and conductivity) was developed.
Finally, both the database and multi-variate statistical analysis were used to show the role of mechanical earth modeling in enhancing and improving the understanding of fracture optimization in the Glauconite Formation. Results from hybrid fracture fluid treatments were compared to treated water fracture treatments to determine the optimum fracture stimulation design for this unconventional extremely tight gas resource.
This work provides a benefit to the petroleum industry by: Using a geo-mechanical finite element model to improve the understanding of the propped fracture dimensions achieved by hybrid and treated water fracture treatments in an unconventional resource like the Glauconite Formation. Establish the key drivers for successful water-frac treatments.
Using a geo-mechanical finite element model to improve the understanding of the propped fracture dimensions achieved by hybrid and treated water fracture treatments in an unconventional resource like the Glauconite Formation.
Establish the key drivers for successful water-frac treatments.
Britt, L. K. (NSI Fracturing, LLC) | Otzen, G. (ENAP) | Guzman, M. (ENAP) | Kusanovic, G. (ENAP) | Alqatrani, G. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Dunn-Norman, S. (Missouri University of Science and Technology)
The Glauconite Formation in southern Chile is an unconventional resource made up of approximately forty percent clay and glauconite, thirty-four percent feldspar, twenty-three percent quartz, and three percent tuff. Like many unconventional reservoirs outside the United States, establishing commercial production from the Glauconite Formation was difficult given the make-up of the reservoir, the availability of equipment and materials, and the logistics associated with drilling, completing, and fracture stimulating wells in a remote area like Tierra del Fuego in southern Chile.
This paper describes the effort to establish commercial production from the Glauconite Formation beginning with a couple of marginal wells in late 2011 through a nearly seventy-five well development by early 2016. As part of this effort, a basis of fracture design was established by developing a profile with depth of in-situ stress, Young's Modulus, and leak-off coefficient. These geomechanical assumptions were then tested and modified with core and pump-in data and used to make revisions to the fracture stimulation design. The designs were optimized to ensure that the critical fracture dimensions (fracture length, conductivity, and height) were achieved to maximize well performance.
Next, a data collection plan was developed to capture key information about completions, mini-frac analysis, fracture design and execution, fluid, proppant, and chemical additives, reservoir quality, and post fracture flowback and clean-up data. The database was then utilized to monitor the Glauconite fracture stimulation program to ensure that the basis of design for the fracture program maintains viability and to ensure that the appropriate equipment and materials were mobilized for fracture optimization and to meet the program objectives.
This paper focuses on the key elements of well completions and fracture stimulation practices as they apply to tight gas and unconventional formations by using the database to manage project risks and develop appropriate mitigation strategies. For example, preliminary fracture stimulation designs were based on initial reservoir permeability estimates of 4 md, however, the data collection plan incorporated a well test program which determined that the actual reservoir permeability was nearly one thousand times less.
Another example was the rock mechanics and geomechanical data derived from dipole sonic logs indicated little in-situ stress contrast and raised concerns about the ability to achieve the desired fracture dimensions. In addition, the log derived Young's Modulus was low and inconsistent with the core tri-axial compression and ultrasonic data as well as the on-site mini-frac net pressure data. As a result, a number of tri-axial compression tests were conducted and it was determined that the Young's Modulus was much higher than indicated from the logs. The collected data and monitoring program resulted in significant treatment modifications ranging from the small cross-linked stimulations conducted initially to linear gel, hybrids, and ultimately treated water fracture stimulations as equipment and materials became available. This work is beneficial as it:
Conducts an indepth well analysis and evaluation to develop a basis of fracture design, Builds a database of important reservoir quality, completion, mini-frac, fracture, and post fracture clean-up data, Utilizes the database to monitor the fracture design basis, manage material and equipment needs in a remote area, and to maximize well performance.
Conducts an indepth well analysis and evaluation to develop a basis of fracture design,
Builds a database of important reservoir quality, completion, mini-frac, fracture, and post fracture clean-up data,
Utilizes the database to monitor the fracture design basis, manage material and equipment needs in a remote area, and to maximize well performance.
Alqatrani, G. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Britt, L. K. (NSI Fracturing, LLC) | Otzen, G. (ENAP) | Guzman, M. (ENAP) | Kusanovic, G. (ENAP) | Dunn-Norman, S. (Missouri University of Science and Technology)
The Glauconite Formation is a low permeability unconventional resource in southern Chile. Like many unconventional reservoirs outside the United States establishing commercial production from the Glauconite Formation was difficult given the nature of the reservoir, the availability of equipment and materials, and the logistics associated with drilling, completing, and fracture stimulating wells in a remote area like Tierra del Fuego in southern Chile. To be successful fracture stimulating wells in this environment it was critical to develop a deep understanding of the relationship between reservoir quality, completions, mini-frac analysis, fracture design, execution, and post fracture production data. To this end, a database was developed and the key completion and fracture stimulation parameters were captured.
This paper describes a statistical evaluation of nearly seventy wells fracture stimulated in the Glauconite Formation in southern Chile. The analysis will attempt to discover the key fracture design parameters that drive well performance in this unconventional resource. Some key questions to be addressed include: What type of fracture fluid (cross-linked, linear gel, hybrid, or treated water frac's) results in better well performance? What is the effect of treatment volume on well performance? What is the effect of proppant volume, proppant type, and proppant size on well performance? Is there a relationship between fracture fluid efficiency, load recovery, reservoir quality and well performance? These and more questions will be addressed in this paper.
This paper will also use the information in the database and the results of the statistical evaluation to conduct a fracture optimization study and determine the optimum fracture design which maximizes well performance and economic objectives. This work benefits the petroleum industry by: Conducting a statistical analysis of the important completion and fracture stimulation parameters to determine the success drivers for well performance in an unconventional tight gas reservoir, Utilizing the statistics to identify well completion and fracture stimulation risks and risk mitigation strategies,
Conducting a statistical analysis of the important completion and fracture stimulation parameters to determine the success drivers for well performance in an unconventional tight gas reservoir,
Utilizing the statistics to identify well completion and fracture stimulation risks and risk mitigation strategies,
Hydraulic fracturing has become a critical component in the successful development of unconventional reservoirs; it is well known that constructing an economic well in this type of formation is very challenging. In the last 15 years, exploration and development of unconventional reservoirs (tight gas) has been initiated. Over the past 5 years, the main target in Argentina has been located in the Vaca Muerta shale, which is one of the main source rocks in Argentina. Such a development challenge requires one to develop a fast learning curve to more quickly achieve economic wells. This type of completion and stimulation involves vast amounts of water, proppant, chemicals, and special equipment, coupled with continuous improvements in operations, quality, cost, time, and safety. Various alternatives in proppant management were explored and introduced. This paper describes several aspects related to stimulation of different tight formations and shales in Argentina, including proppant selection, supply chain, logistics, new storage systems, and laboratory studies performed on local white sand. The focus will be on these key aspects: Stimulation: information about proppant type, amount, and size for hydraulic fracturing performed in several tight and shale formations in Argentina with more details of the Vaca Muerta formation. Logistics and supply chain: improvements introduced from transportation, storage, and handling of proppant, including the evolution process over the last few years, from centralized storage sites to the wellsite. Laboratory: several samples of white sand procured from different parts of Argentina were evaluated to be used in hydraulic fracturing. API and ISO standards were used for qualifying tests including specific gravity (SG), bulk density, acid solubility, turbidity, sphericity, roundness, sieve analysis, and crush strength.
Stimulation: information about proppant type, amount, and size for hydraulic fracturing performed in several tight and shale formations in Argentina with more details of the Vaca Muerta formation.
Logistics and supply chain: improvements introduced from transportation, storage, and handling of proppant, including the evolution process over the last few years, from centralized storage sites to the wellsite.
Laboratory: several samples of white sand procured from different parts of Argentina were evaluated to be used in hydraulic fracturing. API and ISO standards were used for qualifying tests including specific gravity (SG), bulk density, acid solubility, turbidity, sphericity, roundness, sieve analysis, and crush strength.
New Zealand’s geothermal systems contribute with over 14% of the national electricity supply. This share is projected to increase to 25% by the year 2025. To manage these resources optimally, a set of available modelling techniques developed over decades is used, providing means to integrate geological, geophysical, geochemical and engineering information.
Current models, however, tend to simplify the geology of volcanic geothermal systems to satisfy computer simulator requirements. As a consequence, petrophysical properties at a gridblock scale are often calculated by calibration methods. Presently petrophysical data is scarce and the understanding of important properties such as porosity and permeability is limited.
As an alternative, a rock typing technique based on textural features observed on hand samples to estimate reservoir quality is being applied. The methodology, developed to overcome the limited availability of drill-cores especially in exploration and early phases of development of petroleum reservoirs, is suitable for New Zealand’s geothermal reservoirs where drill-cuttings are the main samples available for reservoir characterization.
This paper presents a variation of textural descriptors used in sandstone and carbonate reservoirs, e.g., surface appearance, fabric, particle size, argillaceous content, visual porosity, and their application to volcanic rocks. Textural descriptors are combined in a classification method to produce rock types with similar reservoir quality. The optimal classification has been studied with results of an unsupervised neural network that evaluates the input data to find clustering patterns.
This rock typing method has proven to be suitable to describe coherent lavas and volcaniclastic rocks in a geothermal reservoir. A catalogue of rock types that will provide analogues for comparison is under development, and a neural network is under training to provide means to propagate the classification between boreholes.
Petrobras has sold its assets in Argentina’s Austral basin to Compañia General de Combustibles for USD 101 million. The property includes 26 onshore exploration concessions with an average production of 15,000 BOEPD, and the infrastructure required for distribution, treatment, and storage. This is the first asset that Petrobras has sold in its 2015–2016 divestment plan, which will see the company sell a total of USD 13.7 billion in assets.
Li, Lailin (Daqing Oilfield Ltd, Co.) | Tang, Xiaohua (Daqing Oilfield Ltd, Co.) | Chen, Shumin (Daqing Oilfield Ltd, Co.) | Wu, Qingling (Daqing Oilfield Ltd, Co.) | Cheng, Dean (Daqing Oilfield Ltd, Co.)
There exist typical tight sand reservoirs in the Gaotaizi formation in the QJ region of Songliao Basin. It must be necessary to increase well production by horizontal well drilling and hydraulic fracturing in order to make more efficient use of the unconventional resources. The complexity of the thin and tight reservoirs and the unknown distribution of sweet spots have challenged horizontal drilling. For discriminating sweet spot distribution and selecting better placement of horizontal well, in this paper, we presented an integrated seismic approach, including preserved amplitude and high resolution seismic processing, rock physics analysis, prestack AVO seismic inversion, fracture prediction, sweet spot discrimination, in-situ principal stress estimation. Horizontal drilling results in the study area demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of the developed integrated approach.
Argentina and Mexico have been long-term natural gas producers, supplying most of their domestic gas demand. However, due to a decline in the production of their associated and non-associated gas fields in recent years, the gap between the production and domestic consumption of natural gas has widened.