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The complete paper uses a feasibility study to present the potential application of a three-axis gravimeter borehole measurement in the Libra presalt reservoir in the Santos Basin offshore Brazil. The authors' findings suggest that an annual survey with a limited well stock could be effective in monitoring this type of reservoir and that a wireline-deployed three-axis gravity tool is likely to provide significant additional surveillance to constrain a reservoir production strategy through better appreciation of the direction of water movement. The giant Brazilian presalt reservoirs are in ultradeep water (greater than 2000 m) and buried at a depth surpassing 5000 m. In order to conduct reservoir monitoring and achieve successful reservoir management, borehole-based geophysical technologies are preferred because the measurements can be made closer to the reservoir mass. The development of a borehole gravimeter suitable for use in deep reservoirs, however, poses significant technical challenges, and breakthroughs have been limited by the sensor form factor (size) and measurement stabilization.
Atlanta is a post-salt offshore oil field in the Santos Basin, 185 km southeast of Rio de Janeiro. The combination of ultradeep water (1550 m) and heavy, viscous oil creates a challenging scenario for electrical submersible pump (ESP) applications. From initial screening to define the best artificial-lift method for the Atlanta Field's requirements, options such as hydraulic pumps, hydraulic submersible pumps, multiphase pumps, ESPs, and gas lift (GL) were considered. Analysis determined that the best primary system was one using an in-well ESP with GL as backup. After an initial successful drillstem test (DST) with an in-well ESP, the decision was made, for the second DST, to install the test pump inside the riser, near seabed depth.
Brazilian state-owned Petrobras announced on 29 January it had discovered hydrocarbons in a well located in the Campos Basin presalt off Brazil's coast of Campos dos Gotyacaze in the State of Rio de Janeiro. Well 1-BRSA-1377-RJS (informally called Urissanê) is located in Block C-M-411, at a depth of 2950 m approximately 200 km offshore. Petrobras, which operates the block in a 50/50 partnership with ExxonMobil, said it would analyze the well data to better target exploratory activities and assess the potential of the discovery. The hydrocarbon discovery was the first of the year offshore Brazil. In 2020, a total of 10 offshore finds were reported to the National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels (ANP), the last of them in December in the Búzios field.
Brazilian operator Petrobras on 23 December signed a contract with independent producer Petrorecôncavo to sell its entire stake in 12 onshore E&P fields, the Remanso Cluster, in the state of Bahia. The sale value for the fields was $30 million; $4 million was paid on signing, $21 million at the closing of the transaction, and $5 million will be paid 1 year after that. Average production there from January to November 2020 was approximately 3,900 B/D and 75,000 scf/D of natural gas. Since 2000, Brazilian Petrorecôncavo, which specializes in revitalizing mature onshore fields, has performed operations and project implementation services in most fields of this cluster. Upon purchasing Petrobras' stake in the Remanso Cluster, Petrorecôncavo became the concessionary of the fields and its current service contract was terminated.
Biological monitoring is the continued examination of biological specimens taken from a specific environment to identify any human-caused issues. In the oil and gas industry, biological monitoring programs provide important data for decision making and to ensure the protection of resources and ecosystems. To evaluate ecosystems, flora, fauna, arthropods, birds, small mammals, and other species are examined within specific sampling zones to determine the effect on their respective habitats and density within those habitats. Tissue samples are analyzed to determine the effect of chemicals on specific species. Air, water, and soil samples are tested for signs of environmental toxicity. Based on findings from data collected, a plan is then created to prevent potential or further damage to the zones affected by the drilling area.
If the problem is formation damage, then matrix acidizing may be an appropriate treatment to restore production. This page discusses ways to evaluate whether a well is a good candidate for acidizing. This plugging can be either mechanical or chemical. Mechanical plugging is caused by either introduction of suspended solids in a completion or workover fluid, or dispersion of in-situ fines by incompatible fluids and/or high interstitial velocities. Chemical plugging is caused by mixing incompatible fluids that precipitate solids.
A leading cause of unsuccessful acid treatment is failure to contact all the damage with the acid. Fluids pumped into a formation preferentially take the path of least resistance. This makes the placement and coverage of the acid an important component of the treatment design. In a typical treatment, most acid enters the formation through the least damaged perforation tunnels, as the schematic in Figure 1 shows. When this happens, it can be readily concluded that acidizing does not work well and is expensive.
I'm proud to share the nice celebration of a big milestone recently achieved: 100,000 b/d produced in Iara license by the floating, production, storage and offloading (FPSO) vessel P-68. Congratulations to Total E&P Do Brasil and all involved. It is only the beginning of this incredible adventure. The Iara license is located in pre-salt Santos Basin, offshore Brazil. First oil from the license was announced in November 2019.
Petrobras on 11 December signed a contract with Energizzi Energias do Brasil to sell its entire stake in the onshore field of Rabo Branco, located south of the Carmópolis field in the Sergipe-Alagoas Basin, Sergipe state. The Rabo Branco field is part of the BT-SEAL-13 concession. The $1.5-million sale is in line with Petrobras' strategy to cut costs and improve its capital allocation, to focus its resources increasingly on deep and ultradeep waters. The average oil production of the field, from January to October 2020, was 138 B/D. On 10 December, Petrobras closed the divestiture of its full ownership in four onshore fields at the Tucano Basin site in the state of Bahia.
Petrobras revised its exploration and production (E&P) segment portfolio in a filing with the US Securities and Exchange Commission earlier this month. Citing COVID-19 effects on its business, the Brazil's national oil company said it will focus on assets in deep and ultradeep waters. It estimated a Capex for E&P of approximately $40–50 billion for 2021–2025, as compared to the $64 billion announced in the 2020–2024 strategic plan. The operator listed the following considerations: focus on deleveraging, reaching the gross debt target of $60 billion in 2022; focus on resilience, prioritizing projects with Brent price breakeven of not more than $35/bbl; and revision of its entire investment and divestment portfolios. Brazilian Real) impairment on its E&P assets, warning investors that changes in consumer behavior resulting from the coronavirus pandemic would likely be permanent.