The probabilistic neural network (PNN) is functional in recognizing complex patterns without doing any pretraining of source data. However, for some data clusters, independence and colinearity characteristics of the variables in learning samples can seriously distort the window lengths of their probability density distributions, then leading to the incorrect or totally wrong calculated probability values and final recognition results. In view of such drawbacks, an improved PNN that incorporates two techniques of mean impact value (MIV) and correlation analysis is proposed in order to perfect the original PNN’s calculation mechanism by removing those interference and colinear variables from the source data. The data used to validate the method are from two wells in the Iara oilfield. Recognition accuracies of the improved network in four experiments are, 74.05%, 71.7%, 83.02% and 88.24%, respectively, each of which is the highest accuracy. The validation results demonstrate that the new network has the capability of recognizing complex carbonate lithofacies and the results are reliable enough to serve as the reference data for other geological efforts, such as analyzing sedimentary process and building a sequence framework.
In geological resarch, lithofacies identification is generally viewed as an important basic step because the results can provide remarkable revelations to other geological areas of study, such as analyzing sedimentary cycles, establishing sequence frameworks and constructing sedimentation models. For a particular well, in order to continuously obtain its lithofacies information, collecting rich source data in terms of lithology, electrical and petrophysical properties at each depth is essential, thus almost all the relevant identification methods are realized by processing logs (Baldwin et al., 1990; Carrasquilla et al., 2008). Crossplots are a classic tool used to predict lithofacies. The crossplot axes represent two well-log types that have significance in lithofacies classification, such as natural gamma ray (GR) and acoustic log (AC) logs, in the case of distinguishing sand and shale. With the advantage of crossplots, the lithofacies of noncored intervals can be predicted in accordance with the identification principles discovered from the data analysis of cored intervals (Busch et al., 1987; Dubois et al., 2007; Gifford and Agah, 2010; Grana et al., 2012). Nonetheless, crossplots methods require that each lithofacies has distinct characteristics on all the analyzed logs, which could not be recognized when dealing with complex lithofacies identification. As such, two other methods, statistics and neural networks, are rapidly being developed in place of the crossplot method (Tang and White, 2008; Insua et al., 2015).
The SPE Distinguished Lecturer Program is funded principally through a grant from the SPE Foundation. The society gratefully acknowledges the companies that support this program by allowing their professionals to participate as lecturers. Horizontal Section: 380m 8 ½" Well; 5 ½" 250 µ screen Proppant: 16/20 mesh (Ceramic) Frac gradient 0.60 psi/ft Smaller screen diameter - 3 ½" Injection of high fluid volumes - calibration tests and fracpack (minimum 10000 bbl estimated) Longer rig time to flow back the well and environmental restrictions (zero discharge). No guns and rig time No fluid injection and related problems with flow back, separation, environmental restrictions. The evaluation is fast; OHGP with low pump rate and pressure, low power, no gel, lower costs and risks.
Summary In recent years, the magnetotelluirc (MT) method has been considered by the National Petroleum Agency (ANP) of Brazil as a valuable tool and was added to the list of methods that account for the Exploratory Program (PEM). The MT method is also less expensive, noninvasive and poses no environmental impact. In this work, we show real examples of acquisition, processing and interpretation in three different basins in Brazil: Recôncavo, Tucano Sul and Sergipe-Alagoas. All exploration programs were acquired in 3-D configuration and the resistivity versus depth models show clearly the value of the MT method in defining structure and stratigraphy, proving that the MT method is a powerful tool in the exploration for oil and gas in mature basins. In that context, the magnetotelluric (MT) method was considered by ANP as valuable tool and was added to the list of methods that account for the Exploratory Program (PEM).
Amaro, T. P. (Queiroz Galvão Exploração e Produção S.A.) | Pessoa, M. C. (Queiroz Galvão Exploração e Produção S.A.) | Cardoso-Júnior, R. A. (Universidade Federal Fluminense) | de Campos, T. M. (Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro)
The analysis and comparison of solid waste generation, transportation, treatment and final disposal data, generated during two exploratory offshore drilling campaigns (2011 and 2013) in BM-J-2 Block (Jequitinhonha Basin, Brazil) with and without the use of a temporary waste storage exclusive area for this operation aimed to verify the applicability of these two waste management operational alternatives in regions where the oil and gas exploration and production industry is not yet consolidated. The compliance with Brazilian legal requirements, with the implementation of a Pollution Control Project according to Technical Note CGPEG / DILIC / IBAMA N 01/11 guideline, allowed the comparision of data generated during the two drilling campaigns, even though they have been generated in different moments. Data generated during the campaigns were critically analyzed and compared using spreadsheets (dynamic tables), elaborated in Microsoft Office (version 2016), considering the need to check the profile of waste generation from both campaigns and to evaluate the effectiveness of two different management strategies implemented. With the waste generation profile analysis for both campaigns, it was concluded that in the 2013 campaign, procedures that allowed qualitative improvements (such as the increase of the best forms of treatment and disposal and of the range of qualified suppliers for management of waste generated by the company's operations) and/or quantitative improvements (such as the decrease in the number of transportation events and the travelled distances) were adopted. Despite the need for continuous improvement, based on the results of this study, we can conclude that the Pollution Control Project during the two f offshore drilling activity campaigns in BM-J-2 Block was effective and implemented according to the Technical Note CGPEG / DILIC / IBAMA N 01 /11 guideline and the use of temporary storage area, although exclusive and built for the operation, is the best management strategy also in areas where the E&P industry is not yet consolidated. Is important to highlight that for a successful implementation and operation of the storage area, the planning of the whole implementation of the Pollution Control Project needs to be minimally effective, avoiding waste loss and other related issues, fines applied by the environmental licensing agency, disengagement of the operation's workforce and difficulties for licensing future operations. 2 SPE-185515-MS
Vasconcelos, A. O. (Federal University of Rio de Janeiro) | Toste, R. (Federal University of Rio de Janeiro) | Rangel, R. H. (Federal University of Rio de Janeiro) | Assad, L. P. (Federal University of Rio de Janeiro) | Landau, L. (Federal University of Rio de Janeiro) | Pessoa, M. C. (Queiroz Galvão Exploração e Produção) | Kiperman, R. (Queiroz Galvão Exploração e Produção)
After the concession of marine blocks for exploration and production of oil and natural gas in the last decade, oil industries activities became to exert greater pressure on the marine and coastal environments of Brazil. The BM-J-2 block is located about 20 km away from the coast of Una, Canavieiras and Belmonte municipalities in the Southern region of Bahia State. This region is constituted by important coastal marine ecosystems, some of them protected by law. This context makes this area mentioned sensitive to impacts from potential oil spill accidents. This work aims to map the environmental sensitivity to oil spills, using remote sensing and in situ data. Therefore, the production of maps representing littoral sensitivity index (LSI) in different hydrodynamics modeling scenarios is important for the implementation of contingency and emergency plans. Moreover, regional studies of geomorphology, land cover and land use were also used to construct the LSI charts. Those revealed different levels of environmental sensitivity to oil spill LSI ranging from 1 (lowest sensitive) to LSI 10, depending on the hydrodynamic conditions. This study shows the importance of considering the spatial and seasonal variability of hydrological, oceanographic and atmospheric processes in order to understand of environmental sensitivity of the coastal ecosystems.
Pessoa, Maria Eduarda (Queiroz GalvÃ£o ExploraÃ§Ã£o e ProduÃ§Ã£o) | Kiperman, Rebeca (Queiroz GalvÃ£o ExploraÃ§Ã£o e ProduÃ§Ã£o ) | Nascimento, Antonio (Participar Desenvolvimento e AvaliaÃ§Ã£o de Projetos Sociais)
Drilling in shallow waters and sensitive areas has plenty of well-known environmental requirements. In Brazil, in addition to the common requirements for shallow water drilling, a fishing compensation plan must be implemented in areas where artisan fishing is intense. BM-J-2 Block, located in Jequitinhonha Basin, northeast of Brazil, operated by Queiroz Galvão Exploração & Produção, falls into that category.
In 2011/2013, QGEP drilled an exploratory well in this Block, located 11,3 nm from the coast in 44 m of water depth. A marine conservation unit (Canavieiras Extractive Reserve) is located to the west, making boundary with the block. Oil and gas activities are not frequent in Jequitinhonha Basin, and for the local communities, this was the first drilling compensation plan carried out. These characteristics led the company towards a strong communication plan to strengthen its relationship with the local communities.
A fishing compensation plan must be executed according to requirements determined by the environmental agency (IBAMA). It must: be discussed with the fishing communities, benefit the community as a group, not increase local fishing efforts, neither should it interfere with government responsibilities. Due to the presence of an extractive reserve, the compensation plan was developed to strengthen the marine reserve, created to preserve the area for the local extractive population.
After several months of dialogues, the local fishermen decided to elaborate and carry on the compensation plan as approved by Queiroz Galvão and IBAMA. The plan was elaborated and managed by the fishing communities themselves, who were responsible for all steps of the project, such as acquiring materials, building physical structures and controlling costs. Queiroz Galvão supervised the monetary expenditure and the project schedule.
Although the compensation plan is a requirement of the environmental licensing process, its implementation in Canavieiras extractive reserve was a pioneer initiative. The local community’s union and organization and the trustful relationship between them and the company allowed the process to be developed in a singular way. This paper demonstrates QGEP’s experience in implementing a fishing compensation plan together with the local communities and the outcomes for the marine extractive reserve of Canavieiras.
Oil and gas reserves estimates that honor disclosure requirements of the US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) are critically important in the international oil and gas industry. Unfortunately, a number of exploration and production (E&P) companies have allegedly overstated and subsequently written down certain reserves volumes in recent years. In some cases, the consequences have been quite adverse. We document some of these cases of reserves overstatements and summarize the consequences. Reserves write downs are of obvious interest to numerous groups involved in the reserves estimation process and outcome, including estimators, managers, investors, creditors, and regulators. The magnitude and nature of recent overstatement cases, relative unfamiliarity with the SEC's inner workings, and the SEC's new reserves-reporting requirements increase the need to examine critically reserves disclosures and reserves overstatements.
Moura, E. (Baker Hughes) | Cockeis, E. (Baker Hughes) | Lucas, G. (Baker Hughes) | Fontes, M. (Petrobras - Petroleo Brasileiro S.A.) | Pessanha, R. (Petrobras - Petroleo Brasileiro S.A.) | Aragao, A. (Petrobras - Petroleo Brasileiro S.A.)