Below is a list of basins and fields; however this is a short list since there are more than 65,000 oil and gas basins and fields of all sizes in the world. However, 94% of known oil fields is concentrated in fewer than 1500 giant and major fields. Most of the world's largest oilfields are located in the Middle East, but there are also supergiant ( 10 billion bbls) oilfields in India, Brazil, Mexico, Venezuela, Kazakhstan, and Russia. Add any basins or fields that are missing from this list!
Seismic data usually has lower vertical resolution than reservoir simulation models so it is a common practice to generate maps of 4D attributes to be used as the observed data to calibrate models. In such a case, simulation results are converted to seismic attributes and a map is generated by averaging the corresponding layers. Although this seems to be a fair practice, here we show that this procedure can present some drawbacks and propose a new approach to ensure a proper data comparison.
The first step of the proposed procedure follows the traditional sequence where seismic attributes are generated by running a petro-elastic model (PEM) with reservoir simulation data, at the simulation scale. Then, instead of averaging the simulation layers, we propose to resample the simulation grid to a seismic grid and filter the seismic impedances to the seismic frequency. Lastly, we extract the map from the regular grid to be compared with the observed 4D seismic. This procedure is performed in the depth domain and allows a straight and fair comparison of the two dataset.
A synthetic dataset based on a Brazilian field produced through water injection is used to validate this procedure. This dataset is composed by a synthetic 4D seismic data (observed data) generated by a consistent seismic modeling and inversion and a set of reservoir simulation models (to be matched). We computed seismic impedance for each simulation model by applying a PEM and two maps were generated for each model: (1) by averaging impedance values throughout the corresponding layers and (2) by applying the proposed procedure. When these maps are subtracted from the observed data (error maps), as would happen in a quantitative seismic history matching, we note a relevant differences. In the dataset used, we observed that if the vertical resolution issue is not considered (Case 1) the error map presents a strong bias that would erroneously force a decrease on the water saturation to match the observed data in a seismic history matching. While the map generated in Case 2 presents the errors better balanced and related to actual water movement differences rather than being a consequence of scale and resolution issues.
The novelty of this work is a quick way to bring simulation data to seismic resolution without going through all seismic modeling process ensuring a proper data comparison, which can be promptly added in seismic history matching process.
The growing amount of heavy crude processed worldwide has created additional separation challenges, leading some operators to turn to alternative technologies. In some cases, electrocoalescence has been an effective tool to separate oil from water. As the world's supply of crude becomes heavier, many of the world’s oil producers will have to think more carefully about heavy crudes and the challenges they pose for processing, storage, and transportation. At the end of the day, when you are working with heavy oil, the question is how to design your system, including both the layout and the functional aspects of various equipment. The OTC 2012 Spotlight on Technology awards highlighted subsea separation and boosting and subsea heavy oil and water separation technologies in deep water.
Subsea Production Systems—Will 2019 Be a Tipping Point? The past year ended with a surge of subsea tree awards as E&P operators locked in lower supply-chain cost. Will demand continue to grow in 2019 and allow subsea OEMs to build backlogs and take back pricing power? New local content regulations could speed up the pace of presalt oil production by more than 21 billion bbl by the mid-2020s. Karoon and Parnaíba Gás Natural are the first companies to apply to change their contract terms.
This study examines how subsea processing (SSP) can develop into an important enabling technology for future ultradeepwater-field developments and long-distance tiebacks. Unconventional production patterns in the Permian Basin are leading producers to replace electrical submersible pumps (ESPs) with gas lift, which had been little used there. The sharp downturn in the offshore oil business has sparked interest in using subsea pumps to add production. If those conversations turn into orders, it may convert this rarely used option into a commonly used tool for extending the life of offshore fields. This work experimentally investigates the behavior of an intermittent multiphase liquid/gas flow that takes place upstream of an electrical submersible pump (ESP).
This paper uses a simulation model to evaluate and compare the thermal efficiency of five different completion design cases during the SAGD circulation phase in the Lloydminster formation in the Lindbergh area in Alberta, Canada. The cost reduction per barrel of oil produced and the extension of sustainable production life by optimization have been two major areas of focus, but the investments in new technologies and recovery-improvement research have not received sufficient attention during the downturn. This paper covers the staged field-development methodology, including analysis and evaluation of various development concepts, that enabled the company to optimize both completion design and artificial-lift selection, reducing downtime and lowering operating costs by nearly 50%. This paper shares experience gained in the Ashalchinskoye heavy-oil field with a two-wellhead SAGD modification. As a result of a pilot for this technology in Russia, the accumulated production of three pairs of these wells is greater than 200,000 tons.
Megaprojects have come to define many of the world’s new resource projects but they are also a testament to the awesome engineering capabilities of the oil and gas industry. Find out who took home this year’s honors. Shell and SBM Offshore won recognition for their Gulf of Mexico Stones field development. The OTC Distinguished Achievement Award will be presented during a luncheon on 1 May at the Offshore Technology Conference in Houston. Gene Kouba was recognized with the Projects, Facilities and Construction award during ATCE.
Megaprojects have come to define many of the world’s new resource projects but they are also a testament to the awesome engineering capabilities of the oil and gas industry. Find out who took home this year’s honors. Shell’s Parque das Conchas project, an ultradeepwater heavy-oil development in the northern Campos basin offshore Brazil, has won the IPTC Excellence in Project Integration Award. The award recognizes significant and unique achievements in managing and directing a project from discovery to delivery.
Companies in the petroleum industry, from exploration and production, to transportation, refining, and distribution, operate around the clock. This paper intends to raise awareness on the impact of fatigue in the petroleum industry and recommend a framework for fatigue risk management. A report from Rystad Energy shows a near-term boost in the global floating production market, with more than 30 new FPSO projects possibly reaching sanction from 2019 to 2021. RDS, a KCA Deutag division, and Kavin Engineering and Services entered into a strategic alliance to jointly pursue design and engineering projects across the upstream and midstream oil and gas market. Last month, KCA Deutag agreed to form a joint venture with SOCAR.
BP and partners have sanctioned the Azeri Central East project, the next stage of development of the giant Azeri-Chirag-Deepwater Gunashli oilfield complex in the Azerbaijan sector of the Caspian Sea. The startup of a second FPSO will add 115,000 BOPD to the deepwater project offshore Angola, bringing overall production capacity to 230,000 BOPD. If sanctioned and developed, the deepwater Pecan field would be Ghana’s fourth producing offshore field. First oil is expected 35 months after sanction, which could come as early as this year. Are Deepwater Projects Due for a Revival?