The high CO2 content of Brazil’s pre-salt fields, which may reach values from 20% to 44% molar, presents both a challenge as well as an opportunity. CO2 stripped from the produced gas cannot be released into the atmosphere due to environmental restrictions. Therefore, the whole amount of CO2 produced should be continuously reinjected into the reservoir. This work investigates the effect of CO2 content on the low salinity water alternating CO2 injection technique (CO2LSWAG) using a commercial compositional reservoir simulator. In these field-scale simulations, CO2 is stripped from the produced gas and reinjected into the reservoir. Primary oil recovery methods such as CO2 flooding and LSW flooding are also simulated. Chemical reactions between CO2 and the minerals present in the reservoir are modeled. Wettability change is assumed to be the main mechanism for improved oil recovery due to low salinity water injection. Compositional simulations of CO2 injection usually assume a constant injected gas rate. In this case, CO2 is supposed to come from an external source. In many petroleum reservoirs this assumption is true. Three factors are assessed in the present work. The first one is the natural reservoir pressure, which is the main driving force in primary production. The second factor is the amount of CO2 available for injection. The third one is the wettability change promoted by the reaction involving CO2. It is shown that in primary production, higher CO2 content leads to quicker depletion of the natural energy of the reservoir, leading to lower oil recovery. Nevertheless, higher CO2 content also means that more gas is available for reinjection, potentially leading to increased oil production. Finally, as CO2 reacts with minerals it promotes a change in wettability from an oil-wet to a water-wet state. It is shown that the CO2 content is an important variable to be assessed in a high CO2 content reservoir. Optimal injection practices must take these three aspects into consideration.
Petrobras and Shell have brought online the Lula field’s seventh FPSO as the firms continue to ramp up production from the pre-salt Santos Basin. The national oil company’s aim to lift oil and gas production and reserves over the next few years will rely on growth from big international projects, including those in Nigeria, Guyana, and the US. Majors BP and Chevron have overcome development challenges and delays to launch their respective Clair Ridge and Big Foot projects. The unit is flowing oil and gas from the Lula Extremo Sul area, 290 km off Rio de Janeiro state in 2150 m of water. The $28-billion Shah Deniz Phase 2 project off Azerbaijan will supply gas to Europe through the Southern Gas Corridor pipeline system.
UK operator Trident Energy is entering Brazil while Australian firm Karoon Energy is expanding its position in the country. Both will try to boost output from already-producing assets. Petrobras says it can produce oil for a lower break-even price than onshore shale plays, including the Permian Basin. Brazil’s offshore sector has cut the cost of deepwater production but comparisons based on break-even prices are slippery. This paper presents a retrospective of the most-significant technologies developed and deployed in the Campos Basin for more than 80 production systems in more than 30 oil- and gas-field developments.
UK operator Trident Energy is entering Brazil while Australian firm Karoon Energy is expanding its position in the country. Both will try to boost output from already-producing assets. Petrobras says it can produce oil for a lower break-even price than onshore shale plays, including the Permian Basin. Brazil’s offshore sector has cut the cost of deepwater production but comparisons based on break-even prices are slippery. Take a quick look at some of the data points shaping upstream headlines and the movement of oil supplies around the world.
Melilo Junior, Angelo Celio (Petrobras) | Oliveira da Costa, Carlos Henrique (Petrobras) | Armani Delalibera, Carlos Alberto (Petrobras) | Schwingel Dias, Marco Antônio (Petrobras) | Palmeira de Oliveira, Thomaz Murrieta (Petrobras) | Pereira, Rafael Merenda (Petrobras)
The Libra Extend Well Test (EWT) project is composed of 2 satellite wells interconnected to an FPSO with an external Turret anchor. One well is the producer, with 6-inch service lines and 8-inch production line in lazy wave risers configuration. The other well is the injector, with two 6-inch gas flow lines also in lazy wave compliant configuration. In the project planning several actions were considered in order to guarantee the first oil date determined by the project, while the production unit (FPSO) was not available in the location and ready to pull-in campaign. One of these actions studied and later adopted was the prelaying operation of the flexible lines with floaters in the lazy wave configuration of the production line of the production well. Later on, similar studies were done considering the pre-laying of injection lines also. As this type of operation is not a track records at Petrobras for the ultra-deep water scenario, additional studies were necessary to ensure its feasibility and the safety execution. The objective of this article is to present the previous studies and the result achieved in the pre-laying operation of flexible line with floaters in the lazy wave configuration of the Libra EWT service line.
Fu, Jin (CNPC Engineering Technology R&D Company Ltd.) | Wang, Xi (CNPC Engineering Technology R&D Company Ltd.) | Zhang, Shunyuan (CNPC Engineering Technology R&D Company Ltd.) | Chen, Chen (CNPC Engineering Technology R&D Company Ltd.)
Located in south of Eastern Venezuela Basin, Orinoco Oilfield is an onshore heavy oil field in South America. The heavy oil is known for its high content of acids, heavy metals and asphaltenes with a viscosity of 1000-10000mPa·s. According to the reserve report released by PDVSA by the end of 2016, JUNIN Block that is situated in east of Orinoco Oilfield has an OOIP of 178*108bbl.
Data of drilled wells and distances between offset horizontal intervals in Orinoco were both studied to improve ultimate production rates. 3-dimension borehole trajectories were designed and the most effective anti-collision measures were taken.
After optimziation 8-12 horizontal wells are distributed on one pad. As the horizontal interval extends, the stable production time is prolonged and the accumulative production per well improves. However, the recovery rate stops increasing when the horizontal interval is over 1600m in JUNIN Block. Economically a large space between offset horizontal intervals results in fewer wells and lower costs, but a smaller space contributes to a higher production efficiency per well. If the space exceeds 600m, the accumulative production rate increases much more slightly. A three-dimension well trajectory consists of a vertical interval, an angle building interval, an angle holding interval, an angle building & direction changing interval, a direction turning interval as well as an absolute horizontal interval.
Since Petrobras developed the first ever offshore deep reservoir (Lula) by scale in 2006, Brazil has been conducting a progressive campaign targeting hydrocarbons buried under deep water, which contributes to discovery of Lula, Carioca, Jupiter, Buzios, Libra and other giant presalt reservoirs in Santos Basin after Campos Basin, where there are 9 oil fields ranking among the top 20 offshore oil fields in terms of OOIP. By June 2017 over 160×104bbl oil and gas were produced per day in deep water of Santos Basin, taking up 57.1% of the total yield of Campos and Satos.
Creep deformation of ultra-thick salt beds, severe loss of limestones, poor drillability of formations and insufficiency of deep water drilling equipment all make drilling and completion challenges more complicated. Mud systems and casing programs are optimized to conquer creep of salt and formation of hydrates due to low downhole temperature. Turbines + impregnated bits are deployed to improve drilling efficiency of siliceous carbonates (Lagoa Feia A Group). Precise control of ECD and efficient LCMs solved engineering challenges caused by narrow density windows (Lagoa Feia B Group and Lagoa Feia C Group).
The P-69 FPSO is a standardized production vessel with a capacity of 150,000 B/D of oil. Petrobras announced the launch of production from its operated P-69 floating production, storage, and offloading (FPSO) vessel at the Lula Field in Brazil’s presalt Santos Basin. The vessel, the eighth serving the field, is flowing oil and gas from the Lula Extremo Sul area, 290 km off Rio de Janeiro state in 2150 m of water. It will produce from eight wells and utilize seven injection wells, processing up to 150,000 B/D of oil and compressing up to 6 million m3/D of gas. Hull construction was completed at Cosco shipyard in China.
Congratulations to the following members who were recognized during ATCE last September. Dallas, Texas (June 21, 2016) — The Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE) announces that Darcy W. Spady, P. Eng., managing director of Broadview Energy Asset Management, has been elected as 2018 SPE president. His term as president begins in September 2017. Spady is the first Canadian elected as president of SPE. Spady has been an active SPE member since graduating from the University of Alberta with a bachelor’s degree in petroleum engineering in 1986. He currently serves on the SPE International Board as regional director for Canada; he is also a member of the Calgary Section and the newly formed Vancouver Section.
During the past years, Brazil has been experiencing a significant oil boom, mainly due to its successful and technologically challenging deep offshore exploration campaign, namely the "pre-salt" area. Furthermore, after a five-year halt on bidding rounds, Brazil held two bidding rounds last year: one aimed at on-shore unconventional exploration, as an attempt to stay current on the abroad shale revolution, the other being the first pre-salt PSC bidding for the super-giant field of "Libra". In fact, Brazilian authorities have stated that they expect to nearly double its domestic production within the next five years [
Both of these exploration frontiers represent not only innumerous financial, technological and logistical challenges, but the success will be dependent and profoundly driven by the availability of the country's petroleum-industry workforce resources involved; specifically, its ability to supply the sudden and critically arising demand. In addition, turning the scenario even more complex is the fact that Brazilian law [
In face of such a scenario, the SPE Brazil Section, along with several nation-wide company and university representatives, developed and proposed a new unified petroleum engineering program course, aimed at all Brazilian universities. It is on such report that this paper is based.
The extensive report indicates that existing academic programs must undergo some changes, if they are to adapt to modern industry requirements and standards. For instance, it concluded that only one-third of a program should be composed of basic courses, with more than half of them on specific-petroleum-oriented courses, together with one-tenth on professional-applied courses. In summary, the report indicates that the Brazilian approach on scientific education must be improved and re-thought, combining a theoretical approach and practical considerations.
Hu, L., and J. Zhou, 2011, Velocity update using high resolution tomography in Santos Basin, Brazil: 81st Annual International Meeting, SEG, Expanded Abstracts, 3974-3978. Huang, Y., D. Lin, B. Bai, S. Roby, and C. Ricardez, 2010, Challenges in presalt depth imaging of the deepwater Santos Basin, Brazil: The Leading Edge, 29, 820-825, http://dx.doi.org/10.1190/1.3462785. Mann, J., 2013, Broadband seismic imaging improves subsurface mapping of Santos Basin pre-salt reservoirs: World Oil, 9, September, 33-38.