Schnitzler, Eduardo (Petrobras) | Ferreira Gonçalez, Luciano (Petrobras) | Savoldi Roman, Roger (Petrobras) | Atanásio Santos da Silva Filho, Djalma (Petrobras) | Marques, Marcello (Petrobras) | Corona Esquassante, Ricardo (Petrobras) | Denadai, Nilson José (Petrobras) | Feliciano da Silva, Manoel (Petrobras) | Rosas Gutterres, Fábio (Petrobras) | Signorini Gozzi, Danilo (Petrobras)
Pre-salt heterogeneous carbonate reservoirs typically present long net pays, high production/injection rates and some flow assurance risks. This paper presents general information, results and lessons learned regarding the installation of Intelligent Well Completion (IWC) in Santos Basin Pre-Salt Cluster (SBPSC) wells. It also presents some important improvements to be introduced in the future IWC systems specification and qualification based on the lessons learnt in these projects, setting some new challenges to the industry.
The benefits expected with the use of IWC are achieved at the expense of challenging well engineering, since well completion design becomes more complex and well construction risks increase. Detailed and integrated planning is essential for the success of the operations, starting at the earliest phases of the well design and continued through detailed execution plans. The use of standardized practices and procedures has led to significant increases on installation performance. On the other hand, an open mind and a constant search for improvements allowed new solutions and procedures to be developed throughout the years. Regarding the system integration, a flexible and standardized control architecture was developed to allow combining different IWC providers and subsea vendors, which proved to be a successful approach.
The most important improvement in IWC installation was the anticipation of the acid stimulation, nowadays performed before the vertical Wet Christmas Tree (WCT) installation. In order to achieve this goal some crucial improvements were gradually implemented in the stimulation practices, such as, an initial injectivity increase solution and some new acid diversion solutions, which allowed eliminating the use of coiled tubing and, as a consequence, the need of a subsea test tree. The well design team conducted an integrated risk assessment to properly evaluate the new practices and establish some actions to reduce the risks. Intense communication between production zones was observed during the acid job in some of the initial wells, ruining the gains of the IWC. After a comprehensive analysis, some possible causes were identified and with the new stimulation practices this issue was eliminated.
Over the years, with the introduction of several improvements, some of them presented in this paper, the well completion duration was reduced to less than 50% of the one observed in the initial wells. This major performance increase has been essential to keep this deepwater projects feasible, especially in the oil scenario seen in recent years. Some of the new practices and lessons learned in this 100 wells equipped with IWC has set groundbreaking practices for Brazilian pre-salt fields development and may stand as a reference for the industry in similar deepwater projects. Additional requirements for future systems are expected to improve even further the performance in this scenario.
The high CO2 content of Brazil’s pre-salt fields, which may reach values from 20% to 44% molar, presents both a challenge as well as an opportunity. CO2 stripped from the produced gas cannot be released into the atmosphere due to environmental restrictions. Therefore, the whole amount of CO2 produced should be continuously reinjected into the reservoir. This work investigates the effect of CO2 content on the low salinity water alternating CO2 injection technique (CO2LSWAG) using a commercial compositional reservoir simulator. In these field-scale simulations, CO2 is stripped from the produced gas and reinjected into the reservoir. Primary oil recovery methods such as CO2 flooding and LSW flooding are also simulated. Chemical reactions between CO2 and the minerals present in the reservoir are modeled. Wettability change is assumed to be the main mechanism for improved oil recovery due to low salinity water injection. Compositional simulations of CO2 injection usually assume a constant injected gas rate. In this case, CO2 is supposed to come from an external source. In many petroleum reservoirs this assumption is true. Three factors are assessed in the present work. The first one is the natural reservoir pressure, which is the main driving force in primary production. The second factor is the amount of CO2 available for injection. The third one is the wettability change promoted by the reaction involving CO2. It is shown that in primary production, higher CO2 content leads to quicker depletion of the natural energy of the reservoir, leading to lower oil recovery. Nevertheless, higher CO2 content also means that more gas is available for reinjection, potentially leading to increased oil production. Finally, as CO2 reacts with minerals it promotes a change in wettability from an oil-wet to a water-wet state. It is shown that the CO2 content is an important variable to be assessed in a high CO2 content reservoir. Optimal injection practices must take these three aspects into consideration.
The Italian operator reported positive appraisal and exploration results from wells drilled some 10,000 km apart. UK operator Trident Energy is entering Brazil while Australian firm Karoon Energy is expanding its position in the country. Both will try to boost output from already-producing assets. Findings from Kayrros suggest the average Permian well is both less productive and more expensive than reflected in public data. Mexican President Andrés Manuel López Obrador is prioritizing investment in Pemex over foreign participation as a means to boost the country’s shrinking oil output.
Anchored by the Khaleesi-Mormont and Samurai fields, the King’s Quay FPS will receive and process up to 80,000 B/D of crude oil. UK operator Trident Energy is entering Brazil while Australian firm Karoon Energy is expanding its position in the country. Both will try to boost output from already-producing assets. The world’s largest oil producer has awarded $18 billion in engineering, procurement, and construction contracts as part of its Marjan and Berri expansion projects. The Norwegian operator will increase its ownership of the giant Johan Sverdrup field before the field commences oil production this November.
This paper describes challenges faced in a company’s first deepwater asset in Malaysia and the methods used to overcome these issues in the planning stage. This paper discusses the successful application of managed-pressure drilling (MPD) in the basin with reduction in risks and well costs. This paper discusses how managed-pressure-drilling (MPD) technology led to cost savings in two wells drilled in the Hai Thach gas field offshore southern Vietnam. This paper describes how a technique known as applied-surface-backpressure managed-pressure drilling (ASBP-MPD) can alleviate the limitations of conventional deepwater well control. The complete paper describes a recent directional coiled-tubing drilling (DCTD) job completed for an independent operator in the Appalachian Basin.
Petrobras and Shell have brought online the Lula field’s seventh FPSO as the firms continue to ramp up production from the pre-salt Santos Basin. The national oil company’s aim to lift oil and gas production and reserves over the next few years will rely on growth from big international projects, including those in Nigeria, Guyana, and the US. Majors BP and Chevron have overcome development challenges and delays to launch their respective Clair Ridge and Big Foot projects. The unit is flowing oil and gas from the Lula Extremo Sul area, 290 km off Rio de Janeiro state in 2150 m of water. The $28-billion Shah Deniz Phase 2 project off Azerbaijan will supply gas to Europe through the Southern Gas Corridor pipeline system.
Australia’s BHP Billiton and the recently acquired Anadarko Petroleum submitted the largest dollar totals of high bids in US Gulf of Mexico Lease Sale 253. Moving their directional drillers into their Houston real-time remote operations centers has improved drilling efficiency for two of the top shale producers. In its first 50 years, LNG has become the world’s fastest-growing gas supply source and is now part of an upheaval in the global energy market. Today, the sector stands at a crossroads, and the industry must adopt new thinking to address current and future needs of buyers, sellers, and consumers. The new well control rule is evidence that memories of the Macondo blowout remain a powerful force for caution.
Researchers from the Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas quantified the economic impact of the US shale revolution for the first half of this decade. Production from the Hibernia platform was shut down again on 17 August after its second oil spill in a month, while Husky Energy began to ramp up output from the White Rose field following the largest-ever spill off Canada’s easternmost province. Anchored by the Khaleesi-Mormont and Samurai fields, the King’s Quay FPS will receive and process up to 80,000 B/D of crude oil. Despite reports to the contrary, Permian well productivity remains healthy, with average new production per well in the basin matching all-time highs, Rystad says. Researchers mapped 251 faults in the North Texas home of the Barnett Shale, the birthplace of the shale revolution, finding that wastewater injection there “significantly increases the likelihood for faults to slip.”
The large independent put together a team of data scientists, software developers, and petrotechnical staff to create a forward-looking vision for how to use digital technology to solve problems. Baker Hughes is still a GE company, but it has partnered with a second company for artificial intelligence expertise, C3.ai. The deal is expected to speed the integration of AI into oilfield operations by the company which also markets GE’s device analytics platform, Predix. Marathon Oil says its shale fields are producing more oil and gas with less hands-on work from company personnel thanks to a growing arsenal of digital technologies and workflows. Malaysia’s Petronas, Shell Malaysia, and Thailand’s PTTEP are now in the midst of full-scale digital adoption.
The firms are now partners on multiple blocks in the North Argentina Basin. Australia’s BHP Billiton and the recently acquired Anadarko Petroleum submitted the largest dollar totals of high bids in US Gulf of Mexico Lease Sale 253. Production from the Hibernia platform was shut down again on 17 August after its second oil spill in a month, while Husky Energy began to ramp up output from the White Rose field following the largest-ever spill off Canada’s easternmost province. The discovery marks London-based Tullow’s first operated contribution to a long list of discoveries since 2015 in the emerging petroleum province. Anchored by the Khaleesi-Mormont and Samurai fields, the King’s Quay FPS will receive and process up to 80,000 B/D of crude oil.