This paper discusses the historical evolution and future performance of wellbore dynamics in a multilayered gas condensate well (100 MMSCFD) in the Camisea Field - Peru. The analysis included the modeling of water vapor content produced within the gas condensate stream and its multiphase behavior and interaction with other fluids inside the borehole through the reservoir depletion under commingled production. The goal of this study is to quantify the impact of the wellbore dynamics in well deliverability and the effective recovery of hydrocarbons for each individual layer, and propose actions to achieve an optimum production scheme.
The approach is based on the modeling and matching of dynamic behavior of the wellbore and individual layers with the observed data during 9 years. For this purpose a dynamic wellbore model was built using OLGA. The inputs to the model are: 1) the properties for each productive layer characterized using multirate test combined with PLT logs to get the individual IPR's; 2) the model of the reservoir fluid to properly represent the retrograde condensation and the behavior of water in the vapor phase; and 3) the liquid levels in the wellbore from historical PLTs and density logs.
In the field case studied, the analysis showed that the water vapor present in the fluid stream is a fundamental key to understand the evolution of fluid levels inside the wellbore. This is quite important since the water in the gas phase is not usually included in the EOS for reservoir simulation purposes and its impact in the wellbore dynamics is neglected because of the very low BSW (less than 1%). For the well that has been studied, the analysis revealed that the lower zone was prone to stop producing due to the higher productivity of the upper reservoirs. Consequently, the increase in liquid level was a result of the production decrease and not vice versa. After the lower layer stopped producing, it was observed that there was a quicker increase of the liquid column between the upper and lower reservoirs. This column was mostly condensate but it was gradually replaced by water in the liquid phase, which came from the vapor phase produced in the upper reservoirs. This slow replacement represents a more restrictive condition for the lower reservoir, as the column becomes denser.
This study allowed for the understanding the complex interaction between retrograde condensation and water vapor behavior with the wellbore dynamics. The study also describes the process of the liquid accumulation during the decline of production of multilayered reservoirs which was successfully matched with observed data. As a result of the analysis, a new completion scheme was proposed to effectively recover the hydrocarbons in the layers affected by liquid loading issues.
This seminar will teach participants how to identify, evaluate, and quantify risk and uncertainty in everyday oil and gas economic situations. It reviews the development of pragmatic tools, methods, and understandings for professionals that are applicable to companies of all sizes. The seminar also briefly reviews statistics, the relationship between risk and return, and hedging and future markets. Strategic thinking and planning are key elements in an organisation’s journey to maximise value to shareholders, customers, and employees. Through this workshop, attendees will go through the different processes involved in strategic planning including the elements of organisational SWOT, business scenario and options development, elaboration of strategic options and communication to stakeholders.
Decisions in E&P ventures are affected by Bias, Blindness, and Illusions (BBI) which permeate our analyses, interpretations and decisions. This one-day course examines the influence of these cognitive pitfalls and presents techniques that can be used to mitigate their impact. Bias refers to errors in thinking whereby interpretations and judgments are drawn in an illogical fashion. Blindness is the condition where we fail to see an unexpected event in plain sight. Illusions refer to misleading beliefs based on a false impression of reality.
Ferretti, V. (Neoambiental) | Mange, G. (Neoambiental) | Aguerre, G. (Neoambiental) | Juarez, M. (Neoambiental) | Maffei, L. (Biodiversity Monitoring Program) | Gomez, F. (Biodiversity Monitoring Program) | Capello, N. (Pluspetrol) | Mendoza, E. (Pluspetrol)
This paper presents the results of a research conducted to assess the effects a 2D seismic survey may have had on medium and large mammals living in the Lower Urubamba basin (Cuzco, Peru), performed in the frame of the Camisea Project Biodiversity Monitoring Program (PMB). The research was conducted over an area of 900 ha, characterized by dense amazon rain forest and rich biodiversity, representing one of the 35 world biodiversity hotspots identified by Conservation International. Thirty four camera traps were installed along the seismic lines. Results yielded significant information regarding the effects diverse anthropogenic disturbances had on medium and large mammals in the course of the survey, concluding that, although some limited impact in time and space were identified, most of the species recorded remained in the surroundings, with little and only temporary drive away. In addition, the survey allowed the identification of 23 mammal species, many of them indicators of good conservation conditions.
Leunda, G. (Programa de Monitoreo de la Biodiversidad en Camisea) | Dias, G. (Programa de Monitoreo de la Biodiversidad en Camisea) | Mendoza, E. (Pluspetrol Perú Corporation) | Capello, N. (Pluspetrol S.A.)
The research presented herein was accomplished under the framework of the Camisea Project Biodiversity Monitoring Program, with the objective of assessing changes in land use and vegetation cover in Blocks 88 and 56, operated by Pluspetrol Peru Corp. The rate of recovery post intervention was also measured and recorded along a significant period of time (+ 10 years).
The area surveyed comprised approximately 247,000 ha for which satellite images (Landsat, CBERS2 and Aster) were used with mapping scales of 1:100,000 and 1:50,000. For further detail, a second stage using high resolution images (Ikonos, Quickbird, Wordview2 and aerial photography) was also performed.
The results show that after 12 years of continuous operation the total cleared area within both blocks ranges between 0.13 and 0.20 %, with a tendency of remaining steady around the latter. This fluctuation is related with a dynamic of clearing and subsequent restoration works associated with the construction of project facilities, along with natural recovery. The research has provided, as well, data related with recovery rates of cleared areas, which range between 14 and 16 % per year.
Another important outcome of the study shows the relationship between the effect of activities directly associated with the Camisea Project and those conducted by third parties (government infrastructure, other extractive projects and native communities). Measured within a 5 year period, the deforestation rate of the Camisea Project tends to remain steady and has affected a small portion of the area (as previously informed, less than 0.2 %), whereas the surface deprived of vegetation by third parties increased 34 % during the 2011-2016 period.
Above all, the research clearly demonstrates the positive effects of the "
The bio-restoration works of wetland ecosystems in high Andean areas where the NG and NGL lines of Transportadora de Gas del Perú TGP are laid out consisted of the recovery of natural draining patterns in the Right of Way - RoW, increasing the percolation and seepage capacity, which is necessary for the growth of native vegetation of the ecosystem, thus, increasing vegetation cover in the RoW. Furthermore, physical barriers were installed to protect the excessive livestock in the region, preventing overgrazing in the RoW, and allowing vegetation to grow. Local labor participated in these works. They were trained in wetland restoration and management techniques, including the breeding of camelids without affecting the wetland ecosystem. An increased diversity of species was observed in the transects as they were farther from the pipeline; however, an analysis of the diversity index by Kp and transect does not show a defined pattern, in two of the eight sampling points (Kp 332 and Kp 349), the farthest transects in relation to the pipeline show high diversity indexes as compared to other transects near the pipeline.
Due to the discovery of “Camisea” gas field in Peru in the mid-1980s and its private investment promotion at the beginning of 2000, natural gas has gained a key role in Peru's energy matrix. The Peruvian gas industry –a fledgling one in that period– was forced to devise financial mechanisms in order to get its development. One of them, perhaps the most important, was the creation of the "Main Transportation and Distribution Pipelines Guarantee" (GRP, as its acronym in Spanish).
GRP is a financial tool to ensure the annual income of investors in the transportation and distribution of natural gas. This is an additional payment made by energy customers for the shortfall that might exist between an expected income and an income that is guaranteed by the transportation and distribution of natural gas concession contracts, to adequately reward the cost of service of the concessionaires. GRP reduces the investment risk of transportation and distribution gas service and makes it possible the development of the gas industry. It would not have been possible to install Peruvian main transportation and distribution pipelines such as “Camisea” project if GRP had not been created. Even if “Camisea” had been concluded, the price of gas transportation service would have been high and the costs of power plants (pipeline main customers) would have increased, with a consequent impact on electricity prices and the failure of gas industry.
GRP is all a Peruvian regulatory conception. It will make possible future projects that will provide energy access to the poorest regions in the country. Based on its key role played in Peru, the proposed paper will expose how the GRP works, the agents who are required to pay it and, as a conclusion, why it is so important for the economic development and energy access.
Currently, few shale gas fields have been discovered in Peru. These fields require technical and economic strategies for optimal development. The main aim of this paper is to show the location of sedimentary basins and stratigraphic columns of the main basins, where we can see the source rocks, which are likely to be candidates for exploration for shale gas and shale oil. On the basis of a comprehensive analysis, it will show different fields and their possible development techniques.