OneSubsea's multiphase compressor is a wet gas compressor with no requirements for an upstream separation facility or an antisurge system, which simplifies its subsea system requirements. The compressor is a contrarotating machine specifically designed for pressure boosting of unprocessed wellstream. Developed in collaboration with Statoil, this configuration allows for a compact design that is easy to install by use of light intervention vessels, and is based on the well-proven design developed for subsea booster pumps. The compressor is capable of handling high liquid contents without mechanical issues, with gas volume fractions typically ranging from 95% to 100%. The application of a wet gas compressor in the subsea environment eliminates the need for preprocessing in a subsea compression system, thus enabling the deployment of simplified subsea systems at lower capital expenditures and field development costs.
SBM Offshore's ARCA chain connector technology attaches mooring lines to floating units. Placing the chain articulation in the mooring line allows for floating units to be recovered for inspection and maintenance. The chain connector also enables diverless connection and disconnection as well as significant cost reduction for turret mooring systems.
The Tracerco Discovery subsea computerized tomography scanner allows companies to nonintrusively inspect complex subsea flowlines (including pipe in pipe, risers, and pipe bundles) for flow assurance issues and integrity flaws from the outside of the pipe without removing any protective and insulation coatings. The scanner provides data on pipeline integrity and flow assurance problems to an accuracy of nearly 1 mm without stopping production or removing coatings.
Oceaneering's Magna subsea inspection system is a screening inspection tool that assesses the mechanical integrity of assets at a high rate of speed without disrupting production. The advanced system is deployable by a remotely operated vehicle, inspects 360 around the pipe, and provides real-time data of the wall condition with a single deployment.
The Weatherford Red Eye subsea water-cut meter uses near-infrared light to provide water-onset detection, water-cut measurement, and water-to-hydrate interior ratio measurement. The meter operates in a full three-phase flow stream at any gas volume fraction, and is unaffected by changes in salinity, hydrogen sulfide, or carbon dioxide, thus eliminating the need for corrections related to those factors. It is capable of measuring water cut in a multiphase line and enabling the measurement of relative concentrations of water and hydrate inhibitor. A subsea flow measurement system typically measures the commingled production from multiple wells. The meter enables operators to track the water production of each individual well.
Turbines Inc.'s TMC Series cryogenic turbine flowmeters have a stainless steel body and shaft, with a nickel rotor in all available line sizes. The meters handle temperatures ranging from -450 F to 450 F and a flow rate of 1 to 12,000 gal/min. They have cryogenic and ceramic ball bearings, and magnetic pickup coils are optional.
The subsea hydraulic power unit from Siemens and Statoil is designed for use in offshore oil and gas fields. It provides hydraulic power directly at the wellsite, supplying low- and high-pressure control fluid to the subsea control modules. It can be used in the event of umbilical failure, and it can also serve as an alternative to the hydraulic lines in the umbilical. The unit takes auxiliary electrical power from the existing infrastructure at the wellsite, and during an operation, it does not require any changes to the emergency shutdown strategy of the well. It can be adapted to hydraulic interfaces and is designed for a single-lift installation with remotely operated vehicles.
The report, "Calculation of Worst-Case Discharge," documents the consensus from an SPE-sponsored summit held in March last year. At the summit, 68 subject matter experts met in New Orleans with the goal of improving the methods of calculating and reporting WCD scenarios. The attendees--representing operators, regulators, academia, and service providers--developed the report, which was made available for comment for 30 days and edited to include comments before being approved by the Board. The focus of the technical report is on the calculation of WCD rather than well design or intervention. Its primary application is in the US Gulf of Mexico, although the report may be used for wells elsewhere.
In this article, a methodology is presented for the formation of a facilities engineering organization in an upstream operating company and others such as engineering contractors. The goal is to build an internal group that achieves a match of a company's facilities engineering capability with the support required for the company's assets/facilities. This is not necessarily an easy thing to do. Many companies experience difficulty with the process because of the division of responsibilities which makes implementation of a coherent strategy difficult. The process described for building a facilities engineering organization should be driven by technical competency requirements rather than by the types of assets.
I have been writing this column since the Oil and Gas Facilities magazine's inception in 2012 and I feel it is time I pass the baton to someone else: I think a new perspective would be valuable. As I reflect on the past 3 years, I am heartened to see the magazine's growth and quality improvements. As a member of the editorial board, I was initially concerned that we may not get the balance right between general articles and peer-reviewed papers, and that our subject matter may be a little constrained. However, as I browsed through my collection of magazines, I am pleased to say we got it right: There is some really good stuff in Oil and Gas Facilities. This is a testament to the SPE staff and the volunteers who contribute to and produce this magazine and support facilities engineering.