In 2016 BP adopted a technology plan to investigate how efficiencies could be realized in the inspection area. The project termed UWIP (Under Water Inspection Program) was divided into two areas: Alternative inspection technology, Advanced inspection technology.
Alternative Inspection technology addresses the configuration of existing technology to deliver efficiencies
Advanced Inspection technology looks to near future opportunities that may be realized within a 5-year period.
This presentation primarily addresses the Alternative agenda, with focus on how the configuring of sensor packages onboard a variety of underwater vehicles has delivered data up to 8 times faster than traditional inspection methodologies. Termed FDII (Fast Digital Imaging Inspection) the concept aims to replace video with Laser / Stills and contact Cathodic Potential systems with Field Gradient.
The Advanced agenda presents BP progress in delivering unmanned, automated Unmanned Surface and Underwater Vehicle Systems into Inspection programs.
BP has undertaken three FDII campaigns, 2017/18 in North Sea and 2018 Trinidad, inspecting 825 pipeline kilometers. There are another two FDII programs scheduled in North Sea and Caspian regions in 2019. Data acquisition has significantly increased; however, data management techniques have had to be reviewed and adapted. Inspection and integrity contractors expect to receive data in traditional formats and their systems (as well as operators) are not configured to receive and interpret the new FDII data. Additionally, software houses are also behind the curve in allowing users to host and deliver to stakeholders.
FDII facilitates rapid data acquisition and operational teams are ready to grab credit for efficient execution. But data bottlenecks in editing, eventing and delivering data to stakeholders have removed some of the ‘shine’ from the project. For FDII to develop a step change is required in the data management.
FDII is a technique, it is not an inspection criterion. FDII lends itself to Fast ROV and AUV underwater vehicle developments which are also linked to operation from Unmanned Surface Vessels. BP has a stated goal that by 2025 all inspections will performed from unmanned systems. FDII is a technology that progresses us to that goal.
The FPSO Kaombo Norte came on stream on July 27 2018, offshore Angola. When both its FPSOs will be at plateau, the biggest deep offshore project in Angola will account for 10% of the country's production. Kaombo reserves are spread over an 800-square-kilometer area. The development stands out for its subsea network size with more than 270 kilometers of pipeline on the seabed between 1500-2000 m water depth, including subsea production wells more than 25 km away from the production facility. Producing complex fluids within such a challenging environment required demanding thermal performance of the overall subsea asset with both the problematics of steady-state arrival temperature and cooldown. To do so, the transient thermal signature of every subsea component has been evaluated and correlated into a dynamic flow simulation to verify the integrity and therefore, safety of the system.
A unique design of subsea equipment aims to cover a large range of reservoir conditions. In order to tackle both risks of wax deposit during production and hydrates plug during restart, the whole system was designed to have a very low U-value and stringent cooldown requirements. A dedicated focus on having an extremely low U-value for the Pipe-in-Pipe (PiP) system enables to improve the global thermal performance. The accurate thermal performance predictions from computer modelling were firstly validated during the engineering phase with a full scale test. Eventually an in-situ thermal test was performed a few days before the first-oil to assess the as-built performance of the full subsea network. A well prepared procedure allowed to characterize precisely the subsea system U-value in addition to evaluate the cooldown time of critical components, after installation. The error band was properly assessed to take into account the difficulties of performing such remote measurements from an FPSO.
The different elements of the qualification procedure were successful, validating the demanding thermal requirement of the subsea system. The validation of the thermal performance of the flowline was fully achieved. Detailed analysis of the test results was performed in order to define precisely the U-value in operations. The as-built performance verification, including all elements of the complex subsea network, allowed to validate the optimized operating envelopes of the production system.
A detailed qualification process was conducted in order to fulfill one of the most challenging thermal requirements for a subsea development. Thanks to the precise prediction of the flowline insulation performance, the different reservoir conditions are safely handled. The operating envelope of the production system is finally optimized with the confidence from as-built performances confirmation.
ABB is running a joint project with Equinor, Total and Chevron to develop technologies for subsea power transmission, distribution and conversion. The output will form a critical part of future advanced subsea field developments. As such an undertaking has never been achieved before, it is a journey with considerable learnings to be shared not only upon completion (anticipated by the end of 2019) but also en route.
The paper will describe steps taken to build confidence along the way that the proposed solution will be fit for purpose when fully launched. Readers will gain insights into the key steps of this cutting-edge project. These include modifying prototypes of the equipment based on rounds of simulations, laboratory assessments (eg accelerated aging, vibration and shock testing) and water testing. Insight will be provided on tedious testing and qualification effort required to achieve the technology readiness level (TRL) required.
Readers will learn from the challenges experienced in this ground-breaking project and how they were overcome. Insight will be given into the overall challenge of both research/development and qualification of the novel technology developed in the JIP. Findings from testing, including extensive lab testing against industry standards, and the impact on subsequent development will be presented. The paper will eventually share results from extensive joint research work between the partners and ABB. The results are ground breaking and will by the end of the day introduce completely new opportunities for development of subsea fields.
As a first-of-kind-project, the results gained, and the subsequent technology developed will be of considerable interest to the industry. By the end of the day, the results from this project will be a key enabler for the subsea factory vision envisioned by the industry.
This paper describes a novel chemical injection system currently under development for long-term use in subsea oil and gas fields, and discusses the process being used to vet subsystems and components, and thereby increase the overall reliability of the system. Once proven and deployed, the system is expected to be a viable alternative to delivery of production fluids via umbilicals in deep water and with long stepouts from host production facilities. For decades, deepwater engineers have discussed a future in which oil and gas production systems that are typically located on floating facilities, would be placed on the seabed. The resulting subsea factory would include pumping, fluid storage, separation, power management, connections and controls all operating in the marine environment. While these technologies have proven to be reliable in the topside environment, and some have been used for short-term intervention, to date only boosting and separation systems, subsystems and components have been qualified for long-term installation on the seafloor. This paper details how the Technology Qualification Program, defined in the second edition of API RP 17Q, has been applied to qualify the novel subsea chemical injection system. The paper describes how the performance requirements were defined, together with their reliability implications, and provides examples of qualification activities.
In a deepwater environment, production fluid conditions have to satisfy complex requirements to flow smoothly to the production facilities on the FPSO. Flow assurance specialists work at turning these constraints into operating guidelines. This allows to close the gap between reservoir conditions, optimized design of the subsea network, topsides processing capabilities and operability requirements.
In the context of Kaombo, offshore Angola (Block 32), the wide range of reservoir conditions and fluids plus the extreme specificities of the subsea network called for an innovative approach with the following objectives: Empower the operator with a visual decision tool for normal and unplanned operations of the subsea system Promote collaboration between production, flow assurance & geoscience teams to reach an efficient decision, and minimize production shortfalls Allow a design robust enough to tackle geosciences uncertainties Optimize subsea design margins
Empower the operator with a visual decision tool for normal and unplanned operations of the subsea system
Promote collaboration between production, flow assurance & geoscience teams to reach an efficient decision, and minimize production shortfalls
Allow a design robust enough to tackle geosciences uncertainties
Optimize subsea design margins
This new approach, the "Visual Operating Envelopes", aims at explicitly and visually defining the operating limitations of the subsea production loops in a multi-parameters environment: A multi-dimensions map, function of the six main parameters (basically liquid and gas-lift flowrates, water and gas contents, reservoirs pressure and temperature) influencing multiphase flow into pipeline is hence created to evaluate the six main operating constraints (thermal and hydraulic turndown rates, wells eruptivity, maximum flowrates) for the full range of Kaombo fields.
This "operating envelope" tool can then define the minimum and maximum recommended flowrates for different operating conditions based on the following safe criteria: Arrival temperature above the Wax Appearance Temperature No hydrates risk during preservation No severe slugging effect Production below the flowline design flowrate Velocity below the erosional velocity
Arrival temperature above the Wax Appearance Temperature
No hydrates risk during preservation
No severe slugging effect
Production below the flowline design flowrate
Velocity below the erosional velocity
In addition, the optimized gas lift flowrate is directly accessible, and the pressure available at every wellhead is compared to the backpressure associated to the operating point to assess the eruptivity of the wells.
By having previously defined an overall operating envelope, it is extremely easy to evaluate quickly the impact of new operating conditions (due to degraded operating conditions, changes in reservoir parameters, modifications in the drilling and wells startup sequence), which makes this new approach very powerful and versatile. It also contributes to the definition of the production forecast during operation phase integrating reservoir depletion and available gas lift rate.
Instead of relying on specific simulations for a limited number of cases, this innovative method defines a new approach where operating parameters are evaluated from the start, and boundaries are clearly identified, thus allowing to build a sound production profile for an extensive range of operating conditions. By doing so, system knowledge is improved, bottleneck conditions are anticipated, operators, flow assurance and geoscience teams are able to tightly collaborate and take smarter decisions together, resulting in more production. Eventually the method applied to a multiphase pipeline is actually transposable to every problem involving multi-dimensional inputs with combined constraints.
Significant advancements in physics-based model development, software workflow practices, multi-core processing and cost-effective cloud computing has enabled the adoption of high fidelity, three-dimensional (3D) modeling such as computational fluid dynamics (CFD), finite element analysis (FEA), and other first principles-based analyses into normal engineering design practices. Historically, integration of these tools into the standard engineering workflow was challenging due to the excessively long turnaround times to deliver any results.
Nine years have passed since the Deepwater Horizon disaster and industry is in a considerably better position to respond to a loss of well control of that scale. With the delivery of the Offset Installation Equipment (OIE) in January 2018 the joint industry Subsea Well Response Project (SWRP) has drawn to a close. Despite this, equipment and services continue to be developed. This paper will communicate developments in subsea well response technologies and the latest guidance developed by industry.
This paper provides an overview of the International Oil and Gas Producers (IOGP) Report 594 - Source Control Emergency Response Planning Guide for Subsea Wells. What should a comprehensive subsea Source Control Emergency Response Plan (SCERP) consider? What resources including manpower, expertise and equipment would be required for a controlled response? In addition, it provides an overview of recent enhancements in subsea well response equipment. This includes; offset installation equipment (OIE) for shallow water scenarios where vertical access above a wellhead may not be possible and air-freight capping stack solutions to minimise incident country configuration and testing.
The findings from technical and logistical studies, whilst developing this technology, will be clearly communicated for industry consideration. This includes critical activities to be considered in developing response times models. This paper will demonstrate that capping equipment located in country does not necessarily improve the overall response time for a loss of well control event; an effectively planned response is more important than immediate hardware availability. The importance of mutual aid of personnel and equipment in a response will be key as not one company can provide all the solutions.
Although only required for remote or land locked basins, to further enhance industries capabilities, it has recently been demonstrated that existing ram based capping stacks can be transported by air, without disassembly, and thereby maintaining pressure boundaries. This allows for a more rapid air mobilisation to the incident location without the need for major re-assembly upon arrival.
The FPSO Kaombo Norte came on stream on July 27 2018, offshore Angola. When both its FPSOs will be at plateau, the biggest deep offshore project in Angola will account for 10% of the country's production. Kaombo reserves are spread over an 800-square-kilometer area. The development stands out for its subsea network size with more than 270 kilometers of pipeline on the seabed between 1500-2000m water depth, including subsea production wells more than 25km away from the production facility.
During the project phase, measures have been taken in order to standardize the subsea design overall including the thermal requirements. By necessity the insulation design of the subsea component is driven by the most stringent part of the development which is then applied throughout the complete system on Kaombo. This inevitably infers that certain parts of the system operate with a built-in margin regarding thermal performance. With an overall objective to optimize the OPEX the use of this margin on some assets generates added-value in the operational phase by reducing production shortfalls through reducing the number of preservations undertaken during life of field.
In order to improve the overall preservation sequence, crude abilities to delay hydrates formation and/or to transport hydrates have been studied on the coldest fields. It was found that studied crudes present interesting properties to delay hydrates formation. These tests have been performed with crude samples in lab conditions in order to assess the temperature and pressure when hydrates start to form. The results indicate that it is possible to extend the waiting period (i.e. time before launching preservation) well inside the hydrate thermodynamic zone and operating "safety" zones have been defined depending of the actual temperature and pressure.
An optimized preservation sequence postponing the decision point to restart or preserve was finally implemented thanks to:
An accurate knowledge of the full system thermal performance especially including the weak links The study of crude properties for the most penalizing fields vs. hydrates plug risk
An accurate knowledge of the full system thermal performance especially including the weak links
The study of crude properties for the most penalizing fields vs. hydrates plug risk
The methodology implemented is today already field proven and application of the extended waiting period was performed allowing reduction of shortfalls and smooth restart. A significant impact is expected for the full life of the field.
Ritz, Sebastian (Technical University of Berlin) | Golz, Matthias (Technical University of Berlin) | Boeck, Florin (Technical University of Berlin) | Holbach, Gerd (Technical University of Berlin) | Rentzow, Erik (University of Rostock) | Kurowski, Martin (University of Rostock) | Jeinsch, Torsten (University of Rostock) | Wehner, Willem Hendrik (thyssenkrupp Marine Systems) | Richter, Nicolas (thyssenkrupp Marine Systems) | Voß, Thomas (thyssenkrupp Marine Systems)
The joint research project "MUM - Large Modifiable Underwater Mothership" targets the development of a highly modular, unmanned underwater vehicle, which allows a mission dependent module assembly to fulfill a wide spectrum of underwater tasks. The paper presents a case study for the deployment and recovery of ocean bottom nodes (OBN) for seismic surveys. Therefore, a specific vehicle configuration and its functionality is introduced. The advantages of MUM are presented in terms of its cost efficiency and non-monetary benefits, as crew safety, carbon footprint and others. In addition, business aspects for potential customers are discussed.
This paper describes an approach for optimizing the number and type of drilling centers required to enable the development plan to be flexible in design to accommodate infrastructure, facilities, drilling, and subsurface constraints. This paper investigates how decisions made through reservoir evaluation and drilling-and-completion planning affect the design of subsea production systems and, in turn, the design of production hosts.