Content of PetroWiki is intended for personal use only and to supplement, not replace, engineering judgment. SPE disclaims any and all liability for your use of such content. A device on which the CT injector may sit that can be hydraulically raised to allow access to the BHA below the CT connector. Takes the place of a crane.
Topside payloads range from 5 to 50,000 tons, producing oil, gas, or both. A vast array of production systems is available today (see Figure 1). The concepts range from fixed platforms to subsea compliant and floating systems. In 1859, Col. Edwin Drake drilled and completed the first known oil well near a small town in Pennsylvania, U.S.A. This well, which was drilled with cable tools, started the modern petroleum industry.
The concept is that the hydrate concentrates gas by a factor of about 164, without the cost of compressing and transporting gas at high pressure. In shipping, preservation of hydrated gas is vital to prevent losses. Recent measurements have shown that only a mild amount of refrigeration (e.g., to 20 F) will prevent rapid hydrate dissociation, with rates that are several orders of magnitude less than values interpolated from lower or higher temperatures. The cause for this anomalous hydrate self-preservation effect is most likely uncertain because of an outer ice barrier that prevents inner-particle dissociation. The ice protective shell happens because the water from the melted hydrate surface, caused by endothermic hydrate melting, freezes.
Just as there are shortcomings of deterministic models that can be avoided with probabilistic models, the latter have their associated pitfalls as well. Adding uncertainty, by replacing single estimate inputs with probability distributions, requires the user to exercise caution on several fronts. Without going into exhaustive detail we offer a couple of illustrations. First, the probabilistic model is more complicated. It demands more documentation and more attention to logical structure.
Although the commissioning of a floating production system (FPS) generally takes place between the “mechanical completion” and “first oil” stages, commissioning activities begin long before then. LLOG Exploration’s Delta House floating production system (FPS) looms large over Kiewit Offshore Services’ fabrication yard in Ingleside, Texas.
The SPE Gulf Coast Section’s Project, Facilities, and Construction study group is hosting a series of lectures, “What Have We Learned About Host Selection in Deepwater GOM After 20 Years of Being Off the Shelf? The development of compact topside processing plants for floating, production, storage and offloading (FPSO) vessels is a growing industry trend that can reduce operating and capital expenditures over the life of the vessel, a researcher and scientist said recently. Expenditures for floating production systems are expected to more than double in the next five years. This growth is driven by multiple factors. Investments in floating production systems are expected to increase sharply over the next five years, driven by a surge in installations.