Content of PetroWiki is intended for personal use only and to supplement, not replace, engineering judgment. SPE disclaims any and all liability for your use of such content. A subsea production tree with a horizontal valve arrangement to the side of the tubing hanger, permitting direct access to the tubing and tubing hanger without having to remove the tree during a workover.
Many hundreds of subsea wells are currently in service worldwide. Subsea wells may be installed individually, in clusters, or on a template where the reservoir fluids from all the wells are channeled to a manifold that is tied back to a host platform. A simple template arrangement is shown in Figure 1. Often wellheads and wet trees are designed as "diverless" and more recently "guidelineless" because they can be installed, maintained, and repaired either by remote control using equipment that does not need guidelines or tools that are wire guided from a vessel. Figure 1 shows a single-well diverless subsea production system.
Figure 1.6--The Baldpate Compliant Tower is one of the tallest free-standing structures in the world – Empire State Building (right) for comparison (Web Photograph, Amerada Hess Corp., New York City). Figure 1.9a--Worldwide fleet of installed and sanctioned semisubmersible FPS (courtesy of BP). Figure 1.9c--Worldwide fleet of installed and sanctioned spars (courtesy of BP). Figure 1.10--Semisubmersible FPS planned for the Thunder Horse field (courtesy of BP). Figure 1.11--Alternative proven technology field development options (courtesy of BP). Figure 1.12--Subsea production trees used in conjunction with a fixed jacket structure (Intec Engineering, Houston).
As the hunger for data grows, long stepouts become more common, and fiber communication becomes standard, the use of fiber in subsea oil and gas fields is set to increase. The paper provides a fast-track approach to perform screening assessment of multiple subsea concepts. Technologies are being developed that have the potential to support marine mining in all stages from prospection to decommissioning. When two engineers lost their jobs during the industry downturn, they used the misfortune as an opportunity to develop an innovative concept that aims to make it a lot easier to move subsea gas long distances. Currently, the state of the art for subsea well control is based on hydraulic technology.
Africa (Sub-Sahara) Eni discovered gas and condensate in the Nkala Marine prospect offshore Congo. The discovery could hold from 250 MMBOE to 350 million MMBOE in place, the company said. In a production test, the Nkala Marine 1 discovery well in the Marine XII block yielded more than 10 MMcf/D of gas and condensate. Eni is the operator with a 65% interest in the block. The remaining shares are held by New Age (25%) and Societé Nationale des Pétroles du Congo (SNPC) (10%). Sonangol and Total will break ground on a deepwater oil pumping project that will increase Angola's production by more than 30,000 B/D.
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The 2019 SPE Subsea Well Intervention Symposium is to be held at the Galveston Island Convention Center in Galveston, Texas on 13–15 August 2019. The symposium is the premier opportunity to interact with operators, service partners, regulators, and industry experts from across the globe who are focused on subsea well operations. Maturing from a niche sector of the E&P portfolio, subsea well intervention capabilities for operators are being viewed with increasing value as an integral part of asset and portfolio management. Emerging from the recent downturn, there is an increasing demand for readily accessible technology and operational capability to build a proven legacy of successful, value-adding operations. Intervention professionals are now tasked with striving for increased efficiency to mitigate cost constraints and improve overall well productivity, while maintaining a sharp focus on incident-free operations and regulatory compliance.
The current oil price range is challenged to attract investment in subsea or deepwater exploration. However, reserve recovery from well intervention and production enhancement is possible at these prices. The estimated cost of subsea well abandonment in UK sector is on the rise. This builds a strong case for new intervention and well access technologies. There is likely to be an increased interest in intervention in these regions.