The BC-10 asset, located in deep water offshore Brazil, produces heavy oil in the range of 16 to 24 °API. In this article, two examples of production optimization for this field will be provided (further examples are available in the complete paper). This paper evaluates the feasibility of a number of production- and export-riser configurations for ultradeepwater applications.
New long-term contracts between offshore drillers and equipment makers reduce downtime and risks associated with key components, from blowout preventers to risers. This paper evaluates the feasibility of a number of production- and export-riser configurations for ultradeepwater applications. This paper presents results from full-scale testing of a flexible riser equipped with embedded sensors for distributed-temperature sensing (DTS).
A project spearheaded by ExxonMobil, Shell, Chevron, and the Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) has been established to advance separation technology through improved testing methods and collaboration between users and suppliers. The simplest way to measure return on investment for an offshore water treatment system is to determine whether using the system actually reduces the risk of paying a fine for violating water pollution laws.
A study using a dynamic multiphase-flow software simulated a rapid-unloading event and determined the gas fraction in the riser annulus and the effect on riser fluid levels. The Troll field is one of the largest gas producers discovered off Norway, but ensuring its long-term future required finding ways to drill wells in an increasingly fragile formation to develop its rich oil reserves. The list of wells drilled using dual gradient includes one drilled in the “eastern Gulf of Mexico,” which could be more precisely described as offshore Cuba. A previous attempt to drill an exploration well in ultradeep water in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) did not reach its objective.
The floating production, storage, and offloading (FPSO) facility Espirito Santo, located offshore Brazil in the Parque das Conchas (BC-10) field, is the world’s first turret-moored FPSO facility to use steel risers for fluid transfer. Steel catenary risers (SCRs) on a large-heave-motion vessel are susceptible to compression in the riser touchdown zone (TDZ). In this paper, a finite-element-analysis modeling method is presented to simulate deformation, pipe ovality, and local pipe buckling. Severe slugging is characterized by large pressure fluctuations at the base of the riser and is accompanied by fluctuations in fluid delivery from the top of the riser. This instability has negative effects on downstream equipment.
Use of surfactants and gas lift in combination to suppress severe slugging were tested. Surfactants were able to suppress severe slugging for most of the cases, and gas lift helped significantly. The presence of slug flow in the riser of the sunken Deepwater Horizon could make a significant difference in financial penalties for BP in the wake of the Macondo incident, an expert said. Riser slugging can restrict production and cause problems for downstream equipment. This paper discusses a simplified modeling approach to control of riser slugging.
An investigator from the US National Energy Technology Laboratory examines the role remotely operated vehicles played in flow rate estimation from the Macondo well. Various incidents that took place between Transocean, the owner of Deepwater Horizon, and BP, the company that leased the rig for use at Macondo, illustrate the gap between work-as-imagined in the drilling program and work-as-done by the well operations crew. The presence of slug flow in the riser of the sunken Deepwater Horizon could make a significant difference in financial penalties for BP in the wake of the Macondo incident, an expert said. Several different factors contributed to the Macondo accident, according to an analysis by the CSB. The understanding of decision-making processes is critical in ensuring project success and safety.
Majors BP and Chevron have overcome development challenges and delays to launch their respective Clair Ridge and Big Foot projects. This paper presents a case study that is an example of how reassessing a flow-assurance risk-management strategy for operating assets can identify opportunities for optimization. Banyu Urip crude contains 26% wax, which can lead to flow-assurance challenges in a crude pipeline exposed to lower temperatures. Current logistics and pipeline-infrastructure limitations make transportation and production of waxy crude oil challenging, necessitating a step change in the chemistry required to mitigate crude-oil-composition issues. Pipeline bottlenecks have created a wide gap in the price of gas at a key pipeline hub in the Permian compared to the US benchmark level.
The French major is racking up barrels of deepwater production as part of its large-scale West African push. Despite a trend toward renewables and low-carbon energy production among European majors, Total remains wholeheartedly committed to deepwater production. West Africa has seen a significant shift in drilling activity, mainly in deep water. Many of the major international operators are carrying out important exploration-and-development activities there. The subject field in deep water off West Africa provides an opportunity to perform a review of how well the reservoir-performance predictions made at project funding matched with the final actual field performance.