No matter what industry or activity, when a human is performing a task, there is a possibility that the person carrying out that task could make an error. There are numerous studies showing the contribution of poor procedures towards human error, which led to an incident, ranges between 65-90%. Process Safety Management legislation such as Seveso III and OSHA 1910.119, require the use of procedures when executing safety critical tasks and as such regulators have recognized the importance of having a set of good quality procedures as part of the management of human factors.
As companies begin to embrace the concepts of digitalization and big data, the main challenge still remains … ‘how do we make a step change in reducing human error in heavily paper based operating and maintenance procedures?’
This paper will provide examples of how poor procedures have led to human error causing across industry incidents, introduce the background to human factors with respect to procedures and explain some of human error categories to which people are susceptible. The paper will then explain the road map approach that the UK regulator (UK Health and Safety Executive) has adopted as part of their Human Factors Delivery Guide. The paper then shows how the energy industry's approach return these procedures back into a paper format, fails to take advantage of available digital technologies to make the step changes in reducing human error.
This paper shows that incidents continue to occur in all industries due to human error in procedures and shows how the drive from the regulator to perform Critical Tasks Analysis can actually lead to procedures becoming less useable (f these reviews are not performed correctly). The paper will then show how taking a digital approach to meeting these new regulatory requirements provides the opportunity to digitize existing operating and maintenance procedures, enabling a structured, efficient and auditable approach to theses assessments. The paper will also show how the adoption of the available digital technologies provide new performance influencing techniques that are not available in paper-based systems.
The paper will also show how emerging technologies such as Augmented Reality can further enable the transition to these new technologies and how big data, can provide additional continuous improvements in procedures, ensure appropriate competencies are in place for field workers performing tasks and also introduce significant efficiencies to lower operation costs.
Human error continues to contribute significantly to incidents in the energy and other industries. To address this, regulators, such as the UK Health and Safety Executive, are placing new requirements on operating companies to ensure the risks associated with errors in procedures are managed more effectively. The opportunity to make a step change in reducing human error, whilst also providing an efficient work flow, will lead to safer working environments, reduce potential impacts on the environment and also provide efficiencies for operation and maintenance teams, which will lead to savings in Operational Expenditure.
The Health and Safety Executive's analysis shows poor hazard identification and risk analysis is a causal factor in 12 out of 14 recent major hydrocarbon releases, demonstrating that major accidents could be prevented if workers had a better understanding of major accident hazards (MAHs). Therefore, it is proposed that improving awareness of MAHs across the workforce, both onshore and offshore, would lead to better MAH management and a reduction in major accidents.
Once the domain of process engineers, major accident hazard management has been largely overlooked by much of industry. It was acknowledged as a problem but ignored in the hope that specialists had it under control.
Step Change in Safety's Major Accident Hazard Understanding workgroup responded to this by identifying different job roles (onshore and offshore), evaluating the resources to develop MAH understanding already available and creating a suite of resources to fill the gaps.
These resources include an e-learning tool for onshore (office-based) personnel, bowtie lunch and learn sessions, gap analysis tools to identify training requirements of offshore jobs, senior leaders' workshops and a MAH Awareness programme. The MAH Awareness programme, consisting of short films and presentations which can be customised to suit specific worksites and job roles. Each of the four packs explores different aspects of major accident management including MAH identification and analysis, bowties and safety and environmental critical elements, barrier maintenance, assurance and verification and the importance of taking responsibility of ‘owning’ your barrier.
Analysis of questionnaires completed before and after exposure to the programme demonstrates that knowledge of MAH management increased by approximately 30%. Additionally, the data demonstrates that elected safety representatives have a greater base knowledge of MAHs than the general offshore workforce, as do technical staff compared to non-technical and those employed by operators compared to contractor employees.
Whether this increased knowledge gained through taking part in the MAH Awareness programme is retained or impacts the number of major accidents has not yet been analysed but data such as the number of major accidents, including hydrocarbon releases, will be examined over forthcoming years to evaluate the effectiveness of the resources developed.
Nine years have passed since the Deepwater Horizon disaster and industry is in a considerably better position to respond to a loss of well control of that scale. With the delivery of the Offset Installation Equipment (OIE) in January 2018 the joint industry Subsea Well Response Project (SWRP) has drawn to a close. Despite this, equipment and services continue to be developed. This paper will communicate developments in subsea well response technologies and the latest guidance developed by industry.
This paper provides an overview of the International Oil and Gas Producers (IOGP) Report 594 - Source Control Emergency Response Planning Guide for Subsea Wells. What should a comprehensive subsea Source Control Emergency Response Plan (SCERP) consider? What resources including manpower, expertise and equipment would be required for a controlled response? In addition, it provides an overview of recent enhancements in subsea well response equipment. This includes; offset installation equipment (OIE) for shallow water scenarios where vertical access above a wellhead may not be possible and air-freight capping stack solutions to minimise incident country configuration and testing.
The findings from technical and logistical studies, whilst developing this technology, will be clearly communicated for industry consideration. This includes critical activities to be considered in developing response times models. This paper will demonstrate that capping equipment located in country does not necessarily improve the overall response time for a loss of well control event; an effectively planned response is more important than immediate hardware availability. The importance of mutual aid of personnel and equipment in a response will be key as not one company can provide all the solutions.
Although only required for remote or land locked basins, to further enhance industries capabilities, it has recently been demonstrated that existing ram based capping stacks can be transported by air, without disassembly, and thereby maintaining pressure boundaries. This allows for a more rapid air mobilisation to the incident location without the need for major re-assembly upon arrival.
Learning is a "linear process" for workers. It includes studying and understanding basic systems, normal procedures, and emergency procedures in an operational setting. Therefore, they must be developed for the frontline worker, from the frontline worker's perspective and in their words. Step by step procedures will describe the operation of equipment and the interaction of co-workers in the operational context without leaving the frontline worker any questions or assumptions - it is written with concept of operational-need-to-know. Once completed, they will capture the optimum efficient processes and improve your safety management system.
By borrowing best practices from the airline industry several oil and gas companies have been able to implement a system that prevents and traps human error. My presentation will share with your audience that the foundation to safety and efficiency is the creation of standard work for operators and contractors. Standard work that delivers quality work based on the development of procedures and checklists that work in harmony on the rig floor. We will highlight our success measured by the increased efficiency in fracking by over 300%, a reduction in crane incidents by 50% and the reduction of fatal control of work errors. All through the development of a standardization department which became the center for excellence for the operator and the contractor.
Standardization regarding operational procedures are still a new concept within the industry. Our team has produced tangible results which will be shared with the SPE membership in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of standardization and the increased safety and efficiency from it.
In this study, pressure-while-drilling technologies are combined with software simulations to differentiate drilling-fluid thermal expansion, wellbore ballooning, and formation influx during riserless drilling operations. A scientist hired by federal regulators to look for ways to reduce the risk of well blowouts said it is time for the oil and gas industry to treat kicks taken while drilling the same way doctors treat heart attacks.
The program includes water-filtration systems and water health and hygiene education in 10 Indonesian villages. The US Environmental Protection Agency recently requested public comments on whether pollutant discharges that reach "waters of the United States" are subject to regulation under the Clean Water Act and require National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permits. Water management for upstream will transform over the next few years. In many cases, more-effective water management will only be possible with water infrastructure.
Recommended Practice 2001, Fire Protection in Refineries, includes important revisions on hazard analysis, new ways to improve the design of refineries to help prevent fires, and new information on managing the potential environmental impact of firefighting foams and marine firefighting. US investigators hope soon to enter the site of a massive fuel fire and chemical spill outside Houston to begin the hunt for a cause and to determine whether the operator followed safety regulations. When selecting extinguishers, most organizations insist on quality, often deferring to the UL fire ratings with the expectation that higher ratings mean better firefighting capability. For some fires, that is true; however, in high-risk environments, the opposite can be true.
The Health and Safety Executive, a UK safety authority, has served BP with an improvement notice regarding its training for lifeboat evacuation on the Glen Lyon floating production vessel, west of Shetland. Safety training must hurdle barriers built by people’s confidence in their misconceptions. The results of a virtual reality (VR) safety simulator and gaming experience presented by Lloyd’s Register at SPE Offshore Europe suggest that more needs to be done in training and understanding the daily risks of oil rig maintenance and operation. How much value are you obtaining from your safety communication and training efforts?
Well integrity and well barriers have been part of the exploitation for oil and gas for nearly a century, with the introduction of the blowout preventer (BOP) in the 1920s. In response to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon incident that claimed the lives of 11 men and led to the worst oil spill in United States history, the offshore industry devised new technologies and methods that would allow for a quicker response in the US Gulf of Mexico.
Regulators say the blowout that killed five workers on a Patterson-UTI rig in Oklahoma was the product of a slow-moving series of missed signals, misleading testing, and miscalculations that failed to control a natural gas influx. A new tool enables variable bore rams and shear rams to be tested in one run, cutting rig time significantly. Developing a well-specific subsea-capping contingency plan involves assessing the feasibility of deploying a capping stack from a floating vessel, determining the weight and stability, and performing dynamic-flow simulations of closing the capping stack outlets. Despite multitier safeguards, blowouts occur. When such accidents happen, rate estimation is an important and daunting task.