At low pressures and relatively high temperatures, the volume of most gases is so large that the volume of the molecules themselves may be neglected. Also, the distance between molecules is so great that the presence of even fairly strong attractive or repulsive forces is not sufficient to affect the behavior in the gas state. However, as the pressure is increased, the total volume occupied by the gas becomes small enough that the volume of the molecules themselves is appreciable and must be considered. Also, under these conditions, the distance between the molecules is decreased to the point at which the attractive or repulsive forces between the molecules become important. This behavior negates the assumptions required for ideal gas behavior, and serious errors are observed when comparing experimental volumes to those calculated with the ideal gas law.
Sour gas is natural gas or any other gas containing significant amounts of hydrogen sulfide H2S).Sour gas reserves are historically left undeveloped because of the technical challenges and costs involved in their extraction and processing. Natural gas that contains more than 4 ppmv of hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is commonly referred to as "sour". This is because the odour of hydrogen sulphide gas in air at very low concentrations is similar to that of rotten eggs. Significant quantities of natural gas resources around the world are known to contain H2S. These have been difficult to produce in the past because of the tendency for sour gas to cause corrosion and sulphide stress corrosion cracking, particularly in pipelines.
The oil and gas industry is becoming more technologically advanced every day. As automation, artificial intelligence (AI) and robotics improve, it may be increasingly tempting to employ automatic means to accomplish industry goals. The most comprehensive list was developed by Thomas B. Sheridan and W. L. Verplank. Levels of automation range from complete human control to complete computer control. Parasuraman, Sheridan, and Wickens went on to introduce the idea of associating levels of automation to functions.
Historically health, safety, and environment (HSE) standards have been developed using a prescriptive management approach. A new, and potentially more effective, approach to the development of company HSE standards is to shift towards a more risk-based HSE strategy. The risk-based approach allows resources to be focused towards geographic locations, activities, and services that present higher risk to a company and its customers. Some risk-based HSE approaches involves setting prescribed fundamental controls that apply to all activities and employees at all company sites. While some controls apply without variation, the application of many controls increases proportionally with the assessed risk.
Developing a corporate safety attitude to reduce and hopefully eliminate injuries, accidents and releases of toxic chemicals has been practiced for many years. The activities and technologies described below are interconnected with other safety approaches; however it is useful to consider them separately since they are primarily associated with different parts of most jobs.