Drilling operations are faced with conditions of subsurface uncertainty with unexpected drilling hazard potential. Operation is done in 24 hours a day continuously, until drilling is declared complete. The consequence of this work environment is the potential for high work accident, one of which is caused by situational conditions in the field that allow the communication limitations in clear and detailed.
Such conditions may include high-noise working conditions, limited visibility due to weather hazards (rain, fog, dark / night), and sour gas exposure. In this condition, often verbal communication is followed by non verbal communication, either in the form of the use of horns (morse), flag raising (semaphore) and limb movements. Non-verbal communication will be more urgent if the drilling operation conditions in emergency conditions, such as the occurrence of kick, blowout and exposure to sour gases. Non-verbal communication occasionally used in any drilling site does not have standardization, thus increasing the potential for communication errors.
Methods Non-verbal instructions intended in this paper is a sign language that serves as a medium for delivering work orders (instructions). This non verbal instruction uses one limb, represented by at least 2 limb movements in at least 2 stages of movement, to interpret a command or work instruction. If less than 2 movements or less than 1 stage of movement, then the movement of the body may have meaning, but can not be implemented because the instructions are not complete
With the invention, paper and efforts of this standardization, the communication process and the delivery of orders in both normal and emergency conditions at the drilling sites can be carried out in a structured, standardized, clear, detailed and widely applicable manner. The instruction method in the form of non-verbal codes is named: NS Blind Code Drilling, which has been registered since December 2014 to the Directorate General of Intellectual Property Rights and is in process related to the patent application.
Upstream Oil & Gas Industry has witnessed improved HSE performance over time, by adopting latest technology and standards, engineering improvements, including hardware and adopting new processes and systems with maximum emphasis on safety with very good management systems. Compliance and audits have also improved a lot. However, improvement in culture, behavior and commitment at all levels are very important to deliver better business value in Personal and process safety.
Global energy risk engineering companies collate accident data over years and it is very clear that accidents continue to happen, which forces us to think methodology to improve personnel and process safety aspects continuously. It is observed that we are poor in assessing risk as we become used to risk, which could be due to over confidence, ignorance and safety culture issues. As per IOGP Incident Statistics, upstream process has improved over years, while we need to further improve in drilling operations.
It has been seen that Oil & Gas drilling industry is implementing personnel safety very rigorously with greater awareness, certified training programs, advanced technology, mock drills etc. However, Process safety in drilling industry needs greater emphasis. Some of the processes i.e. safety case, Risk and Control register with risk identification, assessment, response, financial impact, control, remediation and self-verification needs to be pursued rigorously. Processes and systems with organizational structure, quality of engineering decisions and understanding safety risk Vs commercial risk and suitable mitigation measures need to be pursued further. Decision hazards are very important to be analyzed including the process and lessons learnt. In addition to above, the basics of safety and the culture of caring for self, colleagues and the Assets are very important aspects.
This paper discusses the culture, processes and systems for safe operations in the upstream industry with special reference to drilling and completion operations.
The rapid progress of technology such as big data and analytics, sensors, and control systems offers oil and gas companies the chance to automate high-cost, dangerous, or error-prone tasks. Most oil and gas operators are starting to capture these opportunities and doing well to accelerate their efforts. Companies that successfully employ automation can significantly improve their bottom line operations.
While automation offers many potential benefits in the upstream value chain of exploration, development, and production and transportation, some of the biggest opportunities are in crude transport operations, such as increased safety, security and decreased down time. Given the increase in oil and gas industry's substantial transport operations, optimizing these operations are essential. Automation creates several opportunities to that end: maximizing accuracy and efficiency in transport operations
This article is based on the application of digital technologies in the field of Crude Oil Transportation for improving Safety and Security while reducing the overall time taken for Crude Transportation Operations at Suvali Onshore Terminal. Digitization and automation of crude transportation operations in oil & gas industry leads to elimination of crude pilferage, elimination of manual errors, efficient crude loading operations, real time monitoring of crude transport operations, ease of measurements, reduction in disruption of crude tanker operations etc
Investigating the causal factors of electric line worker incidents is of high priority due to the decades-long record of incidents in the electric power industry. According to Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS, 2018), 152 electrical line installer fatalities occurred in the U.S. in 2011 through 2016. For the individual years, the fatality numbers were 26, 27, 27, 25, 26 and 21, respectively. These rates often account for the ranking of electric line installers among the most dangerous professions in the U.S. Major contributors to electric line work incidents include electrocutions, machines, tools and vehicles (BLS, 2018). Closer inspection of these contributors reveals that their antecedents consist of attentional, strategic or knowledge factors (Reason, 1997). The study presented in this article investigates the role of sustained attention as a primary contributor to electric line worker incidents.
Little research exists concerning the safety of electric power line installers and, to the authors’ knowledge, no research is available regarding attentiveness as a causal factor of installer incidents. Specifically, the effect of sustained attention and vigilance (cognitive skills of immediate relevance to incident prevention for these workers) has not been examined. Past studies of cognitive-training regimens have evaluated both the effect on the trained task and transfer of training benefit to related but untrained cognitive tasks.
The six sigma management system is widely known across many different industries and businesses. The methodology originated in the early 1980s under the efforts of several engineers working at Motorola Inc. Together, they sought ways to improve quality, streamline manufacturing processes and reduce product defects. Eventually, “Motorola made six sigma its flagship approach to quality, and Xerox, GE and Kodak followed suit” (Bhargav, 2017). The effort evolved rapidly and eventually incorporated a now well-known concept called lean manufacturing. Together, these systems worked to decrease waste and eliminate all activities that were deemed non-value adding. Why did such quality management systems become so popular? What was the reason for their widespread acceptance?
Consider also the growing popularity of the value-add concept. “Value-added is the extra value [or enhanced value] created over and above the original value of something. It can apply to products, services, companies, management and other areas of business” (CFI, 2019). Endless opportunities exist for businesses and employees to add value in their respective spheres of influence.
Bennis (1990) describes how effective leadership requires the capacity to set clear expectations and define an overall vision. Bennis further suggests that great leaders strive to eliminate wasted time, coining the phrase “leadership is the management of attention.”
Building on these principles, consider the leadership qualities of OSH professional colleagues. What do they do to add value to the organization? Do they streamline processes and eliminate wasted time? If leadership truly is the management of attention, what should OSH professionals be paying attention to?
Following are 10 key characteristics that differentiate value-adding safety professionals from those who do not add value. They represent the opinions of the author and are supported by industry best practices.
A pilot of cryogenic distillation technology is designed and installed for separation of the high CO2 concentration of feed up to 80 mol % from natural gas. However, the main concern was the dry ice formation during depressurization or blowdown might cause the pipeline and equipment blockage and consequently resulting in safety issues.
A dynamics simulation and modeling were conducted using commercialize software to determine the settle out temperature during the blowdown especially emergency condition. The investigations were focused on the high operating pressure and low operating temperature with a high CO2 composition which is closer to transient condition and solid region. Then, more comprehensive modeling was conducted by incorporating the equipment and piping design data including the sizing of relieve valves (RVs) and blowdown valves (BDVs). The accuracy of information is very crucial to obtain more reliable results.
It was observed that at high operating pressure, (50 to 75 barg) and low operating temperature,(-58 to 15 °C) the settle out temperature due Joule-Thomson (JT) effect were −58 °C and −92 °C for 60% and 80% CO2 concentration, respectively. Based on the phase diagram, in this condition, the CO2 will be under a solid region. As a result, the Minimum Design Metal Temperature (MDMT) of −100 °C was selected for equipment and pipelines design to avoid material brittle-fracture. Few mitigations measure were designed and installed to avoid the CO2 solidification. The BDVs were installed at the warmer area to minimize the JT effect leading to lower operating temperature than CO2 solidification temperature resulting to potential equipment blockage. The electrical heat tracings were installed at the outlet flange and outlet line of RVs and BDVs to maintain fluid temperature above CO2 solidification limit. This is to prevent CO2 solid from attaching to the pipe wall and build up in the piping in the event of relief. Another mitigation was by installing the outlet line with sloped toward vent header and free from instrument probe or sensor to prevent CO2 solid from build up at piping dead leg section. As a result, no sign of CO2 solid found in the sections that equipped with mitigations measure during experiments.
An inherently safer design of equipment and pipelines are very crucial especially for high CO2 concentration, high operating pressure and low operating temperature with the appropriate mitigations to avoid catastrophic failure.
KOC has been producing oil using dual completions from different pressure regime zones from the same well and South East Kuwait field has many such dual completions wells which are currently being converted from natural flow completion to artificial lift completions. In one of such dual completion naturally producing well, first time in world an artificial lift system - Anchor Pump was installed in Short String (SS) through rigless intervention. Thus project well had un conventional dual completion in the field first of its kind i.e. Sucker Rod Pump (SRP) installed in short string and natural producer through Long String(LS). The well produced for some time through both strings and an intervention by workover rig was required due to high water cut and stuck anchor pump in short string. The paper describes the challenges and initiatives and learnings for safe execution of unconventional dual completion well workover.
Due to combination of natural flow and SRP artificial lift completion, the X-mas tree configuration and associated surface equipment of such well was had several constraints and HSE issues for mobilization of rig and dual production zones with varying pressure regimes have challenges of initial well killing due to plugged short string by stuck anchor pump. The risks were identified during planning stage and risk reduction measures were jointly agreed with Field Development. Various options were explored to minimize risks to ALARP level and subsequently addressed in Work Over Program. The surface equipment constraints were eliminated through rigless works and X-tree configuration were modified to suit deployment of a workover rig. Well process safety principles were applied to accomplish initial well killing in both production zones so as to safely pull out existing dual string completion without any well control issues. An initiative to use sucker rod back off tool, first time and safe back off operation was performed successfully from very close to stuck point.
The existing completion strings were pulled out and further well cleanout and workover program was well cleanout Finally, well was completed with new ESP completion string and successfully production tested. The most important factor in success was proactive planning keeping in view of Process Safety for well control issues and effective communication among the concerned parties.
The initiatives adopted in execution of such a challenging well intervention resulted enhancement in safety to rig crew and Rig operational safety standards in addition to contribution towards cost reduction. Lessons learnt has potential of rig time saving specially during workover of large number of heavy oil wells where stuck sucker rod conditions are very common due to sand invasion in tubing during production.
This paper describes the mobilization of a snubbing unit and blowout preventer (BOP) stack in the Middle East and their use to enable the control of a well with an underground blowout and surface broaching within a short time. The mobilization timeline is provided, along with details about how the snubbing unit and BOPs were integrated with existing equipment to enable re-entry into the blowout well. The procedures and equipment used to enable a stable rig up and well entry are discussed. The paper also describes the situation within the well and the procedures used to enable control. Changes to the original plan, the reasons for the changes, and the results are also described.
Mobilization, rig up, and testing were completed within 12 days of receiving instructions to proceed. The well was controlled and left in a safe condition within an additional 14 days. The original plan had to be continuously reviewed and modified as more information became available during the snubbing operation. The original plan was to slip and shear the holed completion out of the well under pressure; however, as described in the paper, this plan was not implemented. The rapid deployment and use of the snubbing unit brought control to a deteriorating situation. Snubbing provided the fastest option to gain control of this well with an underground blowout and surface broaching.
A proprietary design using a pyro-mechanical, electrically initiated, kinetic energy enabled shearing action has safely and reliably delivered on the promise of "Shear Anything" and seal successfully.
The kinetic blowout stopper (K-BOS) will shear anything in the well above the bit thus eliminating non-shearables from the oil & gas lexicon. Further a superior clean fish with minimal deformation is produced by the kinetic shearing action. The K-BOS will shut-in full flow and pressure blowouts in milliseconds with its simple protected hermetically sealed construction for unparalleled post–shearing sealing performance and dramatically reduce extremely deadly and damaging flammable and/or toxic gas releases. With unrivalled confidence and reliability with best-in-industry control system monitoring and function testing and actuation techniques, the K-BOS requires virtually zero maintenance because of its simple construction where the working components are not wetted by wellbore fluids until actuation, meaning lower costs and reduced NPT and downtime. Like the automotive air bag, the K-BOS is self-contained and meets US and International deregulation requirements regarding safety and logistics of pyrotechnic devices.
Starting with ballistic modeling technology developed for the military, the models were adapted to the K-BOS application and predicted the outcomes of shearing tests with different common tubulars including traditional "unshearables." A testing regime has been conducted to validate the models, demonstrate repeatability of the results, and demonstrate that a post shear seal could be achieved.
More than 30 test serials with the K-BOS 4-1/16″ prototype including empty well-bore tests, shear tests ranging from 5/16″ wireline to 3-1/2″ Drill Collar with a 1″ Wall Thickness. All tests to date have sheared the target tubular without failure. Multiple materials and configurations have been tested.
In all the shearing tests, the K-BOS successfully sheared the target while achieving all safety objectives. The shear test program has validated the models and has also provided validation data allowing for adjustments to the modeling technology for this specific application and resulting in a high level of accuracy and precision in design and shear performance expectations. The shear testing also showed that the K-BOS can shear without damaging the seals and provides an adequate sealing surface after shearing.
The K-BOS has successfully met technical readiness level 5 (API 17N scale) and is ready to move on to in the field scale shear and seal testing. These results and the continuation to continuing development further the prospects of ensuring the K-BOS achieves its mission to strengthen the industry's social license to operate.
As the oil and gas industry undergoes a digital transformation, the massive volume and variety of information being ingested at increasing velocity necessitates new methods of data interaction for decision making. Additionally, effective management of safety risks and flawless operational execution in an evolving oil and gas industry requires innovative applications of digital technology. By superimposing contextually-relevant digital information on the physical world, augmented and mixed reality (AR/MR) technologies have tremendous potential to meet these challenges by providing a more intuitive way to interact with data, train personnel, and ensure process safety.
However, a major challenge with AR and MR technologies is the limited processing power and capability of available hardware. A cloud-based software platform has been developed to overcome computational limitations of AR and MR devices, enabling interaction with significantly more complex 3D content. Additionally, this enhanced AR/MR software platform enables real-time connectivity across different hardware architectures – such as smartphones and Microsoft HoloLens devices – creating powerful new capability for remote collaboration. This unique software platform transforms consumer-grade AR and MR devices into powerful industrial tools useful for a variety of oil and gas applications.
This study will illustrate the functionality enhancements provided by this software platform and how it greatly increases the application potential of AR and MR, including a case study on adoption of this enhanced AR/MR technology for process safety using threat response drill (TRD) scenarios. Enhanced AR and MR provides full-scale virtual TRD scenarios that enable practical demonstration of operational readiness and proactive risk management. Crew response capability and human performance can be collaboratively evaluated with gamified AR/MR techniques, allowing for multiple outcomes based on user inputs through multiple interaction modalities, enabled by the underlying software platform. Enhanced AR/MR enabled by this software platform can drive major improvements in process safety and ultimately help reduce CAPEX, increase efficiency, and mitigate risk across the oil and gas industry.