Drilling operations are faced with conditions of subsurface uncertainty with unexpected drilling hazard potential. Operation is done in 24 hours a day continuously, until drilling is declared complete. The consequence of this work environment is the potential for high work accident, one of which is caused by situational conditions in the field that allow the communication limitations in clear and detailed.
Such conditions may include high-noise working conditions, limited visibility due to weather hazards (rain, fog, dark / night), and sour gas exposure. In this condition, often verbal communication is followed by non verbal communication, either in the form of the use of horns (morse), flag raising (semaphore) and limb movements. Non-verbal communication will be more urgent if the drilling operation conditions in emergency conditions, such as the occurrence of kick, blowout and exposure to sour gases. Non-verbal communication occasionally used in any drilling site does not have standardization, thus increasing the potential for communication errors.
Methods Non-verbal instructions intended in this paper is a sign language that serves as a medium for delivering work orders (instructions). This non verbal instruction uses one limb, represented by at least 2 limb movements in at least 2 stages of movement, to interpret a command or work instruction. If less than 2 movements or less than 1 stage of movement, then the movement of the body may have meaning, but can not be implemented because the instructions are not complete
With the invention, paper and efforts of this standardization, the communication process and the delivery of orders in both normal and emergency conditions at the drilling sites can be carried out in a structured, standardized, clear, detailed and widely applicable manner. The instruction method in the form of non-verbal codes is named: NS Blind Code Drilling, which has been registered since December 2014 to the Directorate General of Intellectual Property Rights and is in process related to the patent application.
Upstream Oil & Gas Industry has witnessed improved HSE performance over time, by adopting latest technology and standards, engineering improvements, including hardware and adopting new processes and systems with maximum emphasis on safety with very good management systems. Compliance and audits have also improved a lot. However, improvement in culture, behavior and commitment at all levels are very important to deliver better business value in Personal and process safety.
Global energy risk engineering companies collate accident data over years and it is very clear that accidents continue to happen, which forces us to think methodology to improve personnel and process safety aspects continuously. It is observed that we are poor in assessing risk as we become used to risk, which could be due to over confidence, ignorance and safety culture issues. As per IOGP Incident Statistics, upstream process has improved over years, while we need to further improve in drilling operations.
It has been seen that Oil & Gas drilling industry is implementing personnel safety very rigorously with greater awareness, certified training programs, advanced technology, mock drills etc. However, Process safety in drilling industry needs greater emphasis. Some of the processes i.e. safety case, Risk and Control register with risk identification, assessment, response, financial impact, control, remediation and self-verification needs to be pursued rigorously. Processes and systems with organizational structure, quality of engineering decisions and understanding safety risk Vs commercial risk and suitable mitigation measures need to be pursued further. Decision hazards are very important to be analyzed including the process and lessons learnt. In addition to above, the basics of safety and the culture of caring for self, colleagues and the Assets are very important aspects.
This paper discusses the culture, processes and systems for safe operations in the upstream industry with special reference to drilling and completion operations.
This paper describes the mobilization of a snubbing unit and blowout preventer (BOP) stack in the Middle East and their use to enable the control of a well with an underground blowout and surface broaching within a short time. The mobilization timeline is provided, along with details about how the snubbing unit and BOPs were integrated with existing equipment to enable re-entry into the blowout well. The procedures and equipment used to enable a stable rig up and well entry are discussed. The paper also describes the situation within the well and the procedures used to enable control. Changes to the original plan, the reasons for the changes, and the results are also described.
Mobilization, rig up, and testing were completed within 12 days of receiving instructions to proceed. The well was controlled and left in a safe condition within an additional 14 days. The original plan had to be continuously reviewed and modified as more information became available during the snubbing operation. The original plan was to slip and shear the holed completion out of the well under pressure; however, as described in the paper, this plan was not implemented. The rapid deployment and use of the snubbing unit brought control to a deteriorating situation. Snubbing provided the fastest option to gain control of this well with an underground blowout and surface broaching.
A proprietary design using a pyro-mechanical, electrically initiated, kinetic energy enabled shearing action has safely and reliably delivered on the promise of "Shear Anything" and seal successfully.
The kinetic blowout stopper (K-BOS) will shear anything in the well above the bit thus eliminating non-shearables from the oil & gas lexicon. Further a superior clean fish with minimal deformation is produced by the kinetic shearing action. The K-BOS will shut-in full flow and pressure blowouts in milliseconds with its simple protected hermetically sealed construction for unparalleled post–shearing sealing performance and dramatically reduce extremely deadly and damaging flammable and/or toxic gas releases. With unrivalled confidence and reliability with best-in-industry control system monitoring and function testing and actuation techniques, the K-BOS requires virtually zero maintenance because of its simple construction where the working components are not wetted by wellbore fluids until actuation, meaning lower costs and reduced NPT and downtime. Like the automotive air bag, the K-BOS is self-contained and meets US and International deregulation requirements regarding safety and logistics of pyrotechnic devices.
Starting with ballistic modeling technology developed for the military, the models were adapted to the K-BOS application and predicted the outcomes of shearing tests with different common tubulars including traditional "unshearables." A testing regime has been conducted to validate the models, demonstrate repeatability of the results, and demonstrate that a post shear seal could be achieved.
More than 30 test serials with the K-BOS 4-1/16″ prototype including empty well-bore tests, shear tests ranging from 5/16″ wireline to 3-1/2″ Drill Collar with a 1″ Wall Thickness. All tests to date have sheared the target tubular without failure. Multiple materials and configurations have been tested.
In all the shearing tests, the K-BOS successfully sheared the target while achieving all safety objectives. The shear test program has validated the models and has also provided validation data allowing for adjustments to the modeling technology for this specific application and resulting in a high level of accuracy and precision in design and shear performance expectations. The shear testing also showed that the K-BOS can shear without damaging the seals and provides an adequate sealing surface after shearing.
The K-BOS has successfully met technical readiness level 5 (API 17N scale) and is ready to move on to in the field scale shear and seal testing. These results and the continuation to continuing development further the prospects of ensuring the K-BOS achieves its mission to strengthen the industry's social license to operate.
Well integrity and well barriers have been part of the exploitation for oil and gas for nearly a century, with the introduction of the blowout preventer (BOP) in the 1920s. In response to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon incident that claimed the lives of 11 men and led to the worst oil spill in United States history, the offshore industry devised new technologies and methods that would allow for a quicker response in the US Gulf of Mexico.
The normalization of deviance is a major organizational cultural issue that is modeled and enabled by poor leadership and filters down through the organization with disastrous consequences for safety and operations. Safety technologies, procedures, policies, and programs have all evolved, yet there still remains a lot of work to do in many industries and workplaces to transform safety behaviors and attitudes.
Ahead of the release of the Trump administration's changes to Obama-era rules governing offshore oil platforms, Michael Bromwich said he is worried. "I don't think they are in the public's interest," he said. The Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement announced updated Oil and Gas Production Safety Systems regulations. The revisions reduce unnecessary regulatory burdens while ensuring that operations remain safe and environmentally responsible. The US Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement’s SafeOCS program has released its 2017 annual report on Blowout Prevention System Safety, noting 18 of 25 operators associated with rig operations in the Gulf of Mexico reported 1,129 equipment component failure events.
Change is constant in the oil and gas industry, bringing an increase in operational risk. As companies acquire and develop assets around the world, they must reduce their risk exposure by improving operational integrity. A recent webinar provides six reasons for ensuring strong HSSE policies are included in a company's ERP system.
In this study, pressure-while-drilling technologies are combined with software simulations to differentiate drilling-fluid thermal expansion, wellbore ballooning, and formation influx during riserless drilling operations. A scientist hired by federal regulators to look for ways to reduce the risk of well blowouts said it is time for the oil and gas industry to treat kicks taken while drilling the same way doctors treat heart attacks.
With the US Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement as a cochair of the steering committee, SPE held a 2-day summit in April to discuss the development and implementation of an industrywide safety-data sharing framework. More precise measurement can create a dilemma. One example is the precise fluid flow measurements used to control managed pressure drilling (MPD) systems. A scientist hired by federal regulators to look for ways to reduce the risk of well blowouts said it is time for the oil and gas industry to treat kicks taken while drilling the same way doctors treat heart attacks. The United States’ top offshore regulator said his agency is adopting new policies and measures to improve its working relationship with the offshore industry.